Genesis Peshitta

Chapter 1 Summary


1 God creates heaven and earth;
3 the light;
6 the firmament;
9 separates the dry land;
14 forms the sun, moon, and stars;
20 fishes and fowls;
24 cattle, wild beasts, and creeping things;
26 creates man in his own image, blesses him;
29 grants the fruits of the earth for food.

Chapter 1

1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God incubated over the face of the waters.

3 And God said, Let there be light; and there was light. 4 And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament from the waters that were above the firmament; and it was so. 8 And God called the firmament Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

9 And God said, Let the waters that are under the sky be gathered together in one place, and let the dry land appear; and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters he called Seas; and God saw that it was good. 11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth vegetation, the herb yielding seed after its kind, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, wherein is their seed, upon the earth; and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth vegetation, the herb yielding seed after its kind, and the tree hearing fruit, wherein is its seed, after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

14 Then God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years. 15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth; and it was so. 16 And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the smaller light to rule the night; and the stars also. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth, 18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of the heaven. 21 And God created great sea monsters, and every living creature that moves, which the waters brought forth abundantly after their kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply on the earth. 23 And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

24 Then God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind; and it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps upon the earth after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

26 Then God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the beasts of the earth, and over all the creeping things that creep upon the earth. 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild beasts that move upon the earth.

29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree which bears fruit yielding seed; to you it shall be for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for food; and it was so.

31 And God saw everything that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

Study Notes for Chapter 1
The term "Genesis" means "beginning". Genesis in the Aramaic Peshitta is aptly titled "Book of Creation". The idea in the first few chapters is that at one time, the planet earth "was without form, and void" (vs 2) and that it was devoid of life. God brought life upon earth as shown throughout the first chapter. The second verse also indicates how God prepared the planet to be inhabited, that is, He brooded or incubated (according to the original Aramaic) "over the face of the waters". The face of the earth bears everywhere the marks of a catastrophe that took place long ago. This may be a result of the fall of angels. Out of what "was without form", God brought life and a spirit of calm. There is something peculiarly striking in the manner in which the Holy Spirit opens this sublime book. We are introduced, at once, to God, in the essential fullness of His Being, and the solitariness of His acting. All prefatory matter is omitted. It is to God we are brought. We hear Him, as it were, breaking earth's silence, and shining in upon earth's darkness, for the purpose of developing a sphere in which He might display His eternal power and Godhead. There is nothing here on which idle curiosity may feed — nothing on which the poor, human mind may speculate. There is the sublimity and reality of Divine Truth, in its moral power to act on the heart, and on the understanding. It could never come within the range of the Spirit of God to gratify idle curiosity, by the presentation of curious theories. Geologists may explore the bowels of the earth, and draw forth from thence materials from which to add to, and, in some instances, to contradict, the divine record. They may speculate upon fossil remains; but the disciple hangs, with sacred delight, over the page of inspiration. He reads, believes, and worships. In this spirit may we pursue our study of the profound book which now lies open before us. May we know what it is to "enquire in the temple". May our investigations of the precious contents of the Holy Scriptures be ever prosecuted in the true spirit of worship.

1:1 In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The first sentence in the divine canon sets us in the presence of Him who is the infinite source of all true blessedness. There is no elaborate argument in proof of the existence of God. The Holy Spirit could not enter upon anything of the kind. God reveals Himself. He makes Himself known by His works. "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament shows his handiwork." (Psalm 19:1) "All thy servants shall give thee thanks, O Mar-Yah, and thy saints shall praise thee." (Psalm 14:10) None but an infidel or an atheist would seek an argument in proof of the Being of One who, by the word of His mouth, called worlds into existence, and declared Himself the All wise, the Almighty, and the everlasting God. Who but "God" could "create" anything real or eternal. "Lift up your eyes on high, and behold: who has created these things? Who brings out their host by number; he called them all by name, by the greatness of his glory and the strength of his power; not one is missing." (Isaiah 40:26) "For all the gods of the nations are idols; but Mar-Yah made the heavens." (Psalm 95:6) In the Book of Job 38-41 we have an appeal of the very grandest description, on the part of Mar-Yah Himself, to the work of creation, as an unanswerable argument in proof of His infinite eriority; and this appeal, while it sets before the understanding the most vivid and convincing demonstration of God's omnipotence, touches the heart, also, by its amazing condescension. The majesty and the love, the power and the tenderness, are all divine.

1:1 God. The term "God" is "Alaha" in Aramaic.

1:2 without form. Here was, in good truth, a scene in which God alone could act. Man and demons alike, in the pride of their hearts, have since proved themselves but too ready to interfere with God in other and far higher spheres of action; but, in the scene before us, man had no place until, indeed, he became, like all the rest, the subject of creative power. God was alone in the beautification of creation. He looked forth from His eternal Kingdom of Light upon the wild waste, and there beheld the sphere in which His wondrous plans and counsels were yet to be unfolded and brought out ó where the Eternal Son was yet to live, and labour, and testify, and bleed, and die, in order to display, in the view of wondering worlds, the glorious perfections of the Godhead. All was darkness and chaos; but God is the God of light and order. "God is light, and in him is no darkness at all." (1 John 1:5) Darkness and confusion cannot live in His presence, whether we look at it in a physical, moral, intellectual, or spiritual point of view. Indeed,"the darkness does not overcome it." (John 1:5)

1:2 incubated. The Spirit of God brooded over the waters. A dark scene, truly; and one in which there was ample room for the God of light and life to act. He alone could enlighten the darkness, cause life to spring up, substitute order for chaos, open an expanse between the waters, where life might display itself without fear of death. These were operations worthy of God.

1:2 waters. deep waters, abyss

1:3 let their be light. The philsopher or scientist who does not believe may scoff at those who put their trust in God and His Word, but we are assured of our hope because we have the testimony of the Holy Spirit given to each one of us. God's object is to lead us into His presence, as worshippers, with hearts and understandings taught and duly governed by His holy Word. But this would never do for the so-called philosopher, who, despising what he terms the vulgar and narrow-minded prejudices of the devout disciple of the Word, boldly seizes his telescope, and therewith scans the distant heavens, or travels into the deep recesses of earth in search of strata, formations, and fossils — all of which, according to his account, greatly improve, if they do not flatly contradict, the inspired narrative. We have nothing to do with opposing the Word of God. We know that science and the Bible can be harmonised. We believe that all true discoveries, whether "in the heavens above, in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth," will harmonise with that which is written in the Word of God; and if they do not thus harmonise, they are perfectly contemptible in the judgement of every true lover of scripture. This gives great rest to the heart in a day like the present, so productive of learned speculations and human theories, which, alas in too many instances, savour of rationalism and positive infidelity. It is most needful to have the heart thoroughly established as to the fullness, the authority, the completeness, the majesty, the plenary inspiration of the sacred volume. This will be found to be the only effectual safeguard against rationalism, superstition and outright ignorance of false religions and of atheism. Accurate acquaintance with, and profound subjection to the Word are the great desiderata of the present moment. May the Lord, in His great grace, abundantly increase, in our midst, both the one and the other.

1:4 the light was good. Here we have the two great symbols so largely employed throughout the Word. The presence of light makes the day; the absence thereof makes the night Thus it is in the history of souls. There are "the sons of light" and "the sons of darkness." This is a most marked and solemn distinction. All upon whom the light of Life has shone — all who have been effectually visited by "the dayspring from on high" — all who have received the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Yeshua the Messiah — all such, whoever and wherever they may be, belong to the first class, are "the sons of light, and the sons of the day." On the other hand, all who are still in nature's darkness, natures blindness, nature's unbelief — all who have not yet received into their hearts, by faith, the cheering beams of the Sun of righteousness, all such are still wrapped in the shades of spiritual night, are "the sons of darkness," "the sons of the night."

1:5 Day. The Israelites considered the beginning of the day to be in the evening; for example, the day begins at sunset. The word "day" is used in Scripture in three ways: (1) that part of the solar day of twenty-four hours which is light (Genesis 1:5, 14; John 9:4; 11:9) (2) such a day, set apart for some distinctive purpose, as, "day of atonement" (Leviticus 23:27); "day of judgment" (Matthew 10:15) (3) a period of time, long or short, during which certain revealed purposes of God are to be accomplished, as "day of Mar-Yah."

1:11 It is by no means necessary to pose that the life-germ of seeds perished in the catastrophic judgment which overthrew the primitive order. With the restoration of dry land and light the earth would "bring forth" as described. It was "animal" life which perished, the traces of which remain as fossils. Relegate fossils to the primitive creation, and no conflict of science with the Genesis cosmogony remains.

1:14 lights in the firmament. The sun derives its light from God — the Divine Source. Hence, the sun may, very legitimately, be viewed as an apt symbol of Him who is soon to arise, with healing in His wings, to gladden the hearts of those that fear Mar-Yah. The aptness and beauty of the symbol would fully appear to one who, having spent the night in watching, beholds the rising sun gilding, with his bright beams, the eastern sky. The mists and shades of night are all dispersed, and the whole creation seems to hail the returning orb of light. Thus will it be, by and by, when the Son of righteousness arises. The shadows of night shall flee away, and the whole creation shall be gladdened by the dawning of a morning without clouds, the opening of a bright and never-ending day of glory. Just as the Sun derives its light from God, the moon derives her light from the Sun. Now, as the sun is a beautiful and an appropriate symbol of Messiah, so the moon strikingly reminds us of the assembly of God's people. The fountain of her light is hidden from view. The world seeth Him not, but she sees Him; and she is responsible to reflect His beams upon a benighted world. The world has no other way in which to learn anything of Messiah but by his own assembly of people. What a responsible place! How earnestly should she watch against everything that would hinder the reflection of the heavenly light of Messiah, in all her ways! But how is she to reflect this light? By allowing it to shine upon her, in its undimmed brightness. If the assembly of God's people only walked in the light of Messiah, she would, assuredly, reflect His light; and this would ever keep her in her proper position. The light of the moon is not her own. So is it with God's separated assembly. She is not called to set herself before the world. She is a simple debtor to reflect the light which she herself receives. She is bound to study, with holy diligence, the path which He trod, while down here; and by the energy of the Holy Spirit, who dwells in her, to follow in that path. But, alas! earth with its mists, its clouds, and its vapours, intervenes, and hides the light and attempts to blot out the truth. The world can see but little of the traits of Yeshua's character in those who call themselves by His name; yea, in many instances, they exhibit an humbling contrast, rather than a resemblance. May we study Messiah more prayerfully, that so we may copy Him more faithfully. The stars are distant lights. They shine in other spheres, and have little connection with this system, save that their twinkling can be seen. "One star differeth from another star in glory." Thus will it be in the coming kingdom of the Son. He will shine forth in living and everlasting lustre. His body, the assembly of light, will faithfully reflect His beams on all around; while saints individually shall shine in those spheres which a righteous Judge shall allot to them, as a reward of service during the dark night of His absence. This thought should animate us to a more ardent and vigorous pursuit after conformity to our absent Lord. (See Luke 19:12-19)

1:28 Man was created in innocency, placed in a perfect environment, subjected to an absolutely simple test, and warned of the consequence of disobedience. The woman fell through pride; the man deliberately. God restored His sinning creatures, but the dispensation of innocency ended in the judgement of the Expulsion (Genesis 3:24). The man and woman in Eden were responsible: (1) To replenish the earth with a new order--man; (2) to subdue the earth to human uses; (3) to have dominion over the animal creation; (4) to eat herbs and fruits; (5) to till and keep the garden; (6) to abstain from eating of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; (7) the penalty — death.

Chapter 2

2:1 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2 And on the sixth day God, finished his works which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made. 3 So God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because in it he had rested from all his works which God created and made.

4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that Mar-Yah God made the heavens and the earth. 5 And all the trees of the field were not yet in the ground, and every herb of the field had not yet sprung up; for Mar-Yah God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to till the ground. 6 But a powerful spring gushed out of the earth, and watered all the face of the ground. 7 And Mar-Yah God formed Adam out of the soil of the earth, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.

8 And Mar-Yah God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9 And out of the ground Mar-Yah God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 10 And a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it divided and became into four heads. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it is the one which encircles the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12 And the gold of that land is good; there is also beryllium and the onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon, the one which encircles the whole land of Ethiopia. 14 And the name of the third river is Deklat (Tigris); it is the one which flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. 15 And Mar-Yah God took the man, and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and to keep it.

16 And Mar-Yah God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat; for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.

18 Then Mar-Yah God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper who is like him. 19 And out of the ground Mar-Yah God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them to Adam to see what he would call them; and whatever Adam called every living creature, that was its name. 20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to all fowl of the air, and to all wild beasts; but for Adam there was not found a helper who was equal to him.

21 So Mar-Yah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh in its stead; 22 And of the rib which Mar-Yah God had taken from Adam he made a woman, and brought her to Adam. 23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 25 And they were both naked, Adam and his wife, and were not ashamed.

Study Notes for Chapter 2
2:2 sixth day. Some translations use "seventh day"

2:2 rested, meaning that God ceased from the work of creating.

2:3 sanctified. consecrated, dedicated, made holy. It means, set apart for the service of God.

2:4 Mar-Yah. This is the first instance of the Divine Name "Mar-Yah", equivalent to the Hebrew "YHWH" or "Yahweh." It literally means "Lord Yah". "Yah" (or Yahweh) is a personal name of God, as opposed to titles such as Lord (Mar) or God (Alaha).

Chapter 3

3:1 Now the serpent was more subtle than all the wild beasts that Mar-Yah God had made. And the serpent said to the woman, Truly has God said that you shall not eat of any tree of the garden? 2 And the woman said to the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of all the trees of the garden; 3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it, lest you die. 4 And the serpent said to the woman, You shall not surely die; 5 For God knows that in the day you eat of it, your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be like gods, knowing good and evil.

6 So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to look upon, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and she also gave to her husband with her; and he did eat. 7 Then the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. 8 And they heard the voice of Mar-Yah God walking in the garden in the cool of the day; and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Mar-Yah God among the trees of the garden.

9 And Mar-Yah God called to Adam, and said to him, Where are you, Adam? 10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and when I saw that I was naked, I hid myself.

11 And Mar-Yah God said to him, Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten of the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat? 12 And Adam said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the fruit of the tree, and I did eat. 13 And Mar-Yah God said to the woman, What is this that you have done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

14 And Mar-Yah God said to the serpent, Because you have done this thing, cursed are you above all cattle, and above all beasts of the field; on your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life; 15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your posterity and her posterity; her posterity shall tread your head under foot, and you shall strike him in his heel.

16 To the woman he said, I will greatly multiply your pain and your conception; in pain you shall bring forth children, and you shall be dependent on your husband, and he shall rule over you.

17 And to Adam he said, Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, saying, You shall not eat of it, cursed is the ground for your sake; in sorrow shall you eat the fruits of it all the days of your life; 18 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the herb of the field; 19 In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread, until you return to the ground; out of it you were taken; for dust you are, and to dust shall you return.

20 So Adam called his wifeís name Eve because she was the mother of all living.

21 And Mar-Yah God made for Adam and for his wife coats of skin, and clothed them.

22 Then Mar-Yah God said, Behold, the man has become like one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever; 23 Therefore Mar-Yah God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. 24 So Mar-Yah God drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubim, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the path to the tree of life.

Study Notes for Chapter 3
3:15 The chain of references which begins here includes the promises and prophecies concerning Messiah which were fulfilled in his birth and works at his first century A.D. advent.

Chapter 4

4:1 And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bore Cain, and said, I have gotten a man for Mar-Yah. 2 And she again bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.

3 And in the course of time it came to pass that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering to Mar-Yah. 4 And Abel also brought of the first-born of his flock and of the fatlings thereof. And Mar-Yah was pleased with Abel and with his offering; 5 But with Cain and with his offering he was not pleased. So Cain was exceedingly displeased, and his countenance was sad.

6 And Mar-Yah said to Cain, Why are you displeased? and why is your countenance sad? 7 Behold, if you do well, shall you not be accepted? and if you do not well, sin lies at the door. You should return to your brother, and he shall be subject to you.

8 And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go to the plain; and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.

9 And Mar-Yah said to Cain, Where is Abel your brother? And he said, I do not know. Am I my brotherís keeper? 10 And Mar-Yah said, What have you done? The voice of your brotherís blood cries to me from the ground. 11 And from henceforth, you are cursed from the earth, which has opened its mouth to receive your brotherís blood from your hand; 12 When you till the ground, it shall no more yield to you its strength; a fugitive and a wanderer shall you be on the earth.

13 And Cain said to Mar-Yah, My transgression is too great to be forgiven. 14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from thy face shall I be hidden; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth; and it shall come to pass, that whoever finds me shall slay me. 15 And Mar-Yah said to him, It shall not be so; whoever slays Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him sevenfold. And Mar-Yah set a mark upon Cain, so that anyone who may find him may not kill him.

16 And Cain went out from the presence of Mar-Yah, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. 17 And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he started to build a village, and named the village after the name of his son, Enoch. 18 And to Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begot Mehujael; and Mehujael begot Methusael: and Methusael begot Lamech.

19 And Lamech took two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20 And Adah bore Jabal, who was the father of those who dwell in tents, and are owners of cattle. 21 And his brotherís name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the guitar and harp. 22 And Zillah also bore Tubal-cain, a craftsman in every work of brass and iron; and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.

23 And Lamech said to his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; you wives of Lamech, hearken to my speech; for I have killed a man by wounding him, and a boy by beating him. 24 For if Cain is to be avenged sevenfold, then Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

25 And Adam knew his wife Eve again; and she conceived and bore a son, and called his name Seth; For God, she said, has given me another offspring instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. 26 And to Seth also there was born a son; and he called his name Enosh. Then men began to call upon the name of Mar-Yah.

Study Notes for Chapter 4
4:4 flock. A lamb fitly symbolises the unresisting innocency and harmlessness of Maran Yeshua (Isaiah 53:7; Luke 23:9; Matthew 26:53; 26:54). This type is brought into prominence by contrast with Cain's bloodless offering of the fruit of his own works, and proclaims, in the very infancy of the race, the primal truth that "without shedding of blood is no remission" (Hebrews 9:22; 11:4).

4:17. The first civilisation, that which perished in the judgement of the Flood, was Cainitic in origin, character, and destiny. Every element of material civilisation is mentioned in verses Genesis 4:16-22, city and pastoral life, and the development of arts and manufactures. The Cainitic civilisation may have been as splendid as that of Greece or Rome, but the divine judgement is according to the moral state, not the material. Genesis 6:5-7.

4:23 Cain had slain an unoffending man and yet was protected by Mar-Yah; how much more Lamech, who had slain in self-defence.

Chapter 5

5:1 This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God created he him; 2 Male and female he created them; and God blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created. 3 And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth; 4 And Adam lived after he had begotten Seth eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters. 5 Thus all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.

6 And Seth lived a hundred and five years, and begot Enosh; 7 And Seth lived after he begot Enosh eight hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters; 8 And all the days of Seth were pine hundred and twelve years, and he died. 9 And Enosh lived ninety years, and begot Cainan; 10 And Enosh lived after he begot Cainan eight hundred and fifteen years, and begot sons and daughters; 11 And all the days of Enosh were nine hundred and five years, and he died. 12 And Cainan lived seventy years, and begot Mahlalael; 13 And Cainan lived after he begot Mahlalael eight hundred and forty years, and begot sons and daughters; 14 And all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died. 15 And Mahlalael lived sixty and five years, and begot Jared; 16 And Mahlalael lived after he begot Jared eight hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters. 17 And all the days of Mahlalael were eight hundred ninety and five years, and he died. 18 And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and he begot Enoch: 19 And Jared lived after he begot Enoch eight hundred years, and begot sons and daughters; 20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years, and he died.

21 And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah; 22 And Enoch found favor in the presence of God three hundred years after he begot Methuselah, and begot sons and daughters; 23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty-five years; 24 And Enoch found favor in the presence of God, and disappeared; for God took him away.

25 And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty-seven years, and begot Lamech; 26 And Methuselah lived after he begot Lamech seven hundred and eighty-two years, and begot sons and daughters; 27 And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty-nine years, and he died.

28 And Lamech lived a hundred eighty-two years, and begot a son; 29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This one shall comfort us concerning our work and the toil of our hands, because of the ground which Mar-Yah has cursed. 30 And Lamech lived after he begot Noah five hundred ninety-five years, and begot sons and daughters. 31 Thus all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy-seven years, and he died. 32 And Noah was five hundred years old, and Noah begot Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

Study Notes for Chapter 5
5:1 Adam, as the natural head of the race Luke 3:38 is a contrasting type of Messiah, the Head of the new creation.

5:22 Enoch, "translated that he should not see death" (Hebrews 11:5) before the judgement of the Flood, is a type of those saints who are to be translated before the apocalyptic judgements. Noah, left on the earth, but preserved through the judgement of the Flood, is a type of the Jewish people, who will be kept through the apocalyptic judgements; (Jeremiah 30:5-9) and brought as an earthly people to the new heaven and new earth; Isaiah 65:17-19; 66:20-22.

Chapter 6

6:1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth and daughters were born to them, 2 That the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were fair; so they took them wives of all whom they chose.

3 Then Mar-Yah said, My breath shall not remain with man forever, because he is flesh; let his days be a hundred and twenty years.

4 There were giants on the earth in those days; and also after that, for the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them, and they became giants who in the olden days were mighty men of renown. 5 And Mar-Yah saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was evil continually.

6 And Mar-Yah was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him in his heart. 7 So Mar-Yah said, I will destroy men whom I have created from the face of the earth; both men and animals, and the creeping things, and the fowls of the air; I am sorry that I have made them.

8 But Noah found mercy in the eyes of Mar-Yah. 9 These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just man and innocent in his days, and God was pleased with Noah. 10 And Noah begot three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11 The earth was corrupt in the presence of God, and the earth was filled with wickedness. 12 And God saw that the earth was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth.

13 So God said to Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is full of wickedness through men; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth. 14 Make yourself an ark of gopher wood; make rooms in the ark and daub it without and within with pitch. 15 And this is how you shall make it: the length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. 16 And you shall make a window in the ark, and to the width of a cubit shall you finish it above; and the door of the ark you shall make in its side; with lower, second, and third decks you shall make it. 17 And, behold, I will bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh that has the breath of life in it from under heaven; and everything that is on the earth shall die. 18 But I will establish my covenant with you; and you shall enter into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sonsí wives with you. 19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every kind bring into the ark, to keep them alive with you; they shall be male and female. 20 Of fowls after their kind, and of animals after their kind, and of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every kind shall enter with you, that they may live. 21 And you must take a ply of all food that is eaten, and you shall store it by you; and it shall be for food for you and for them.

22 Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.

Study Notes for Chapter 6
6:4. "sons of God". Angels are spoken of in a sexless way. No female angels are mentioned in Scripture, and we are expressly told that marriage is unknown among angels. (Matthew 22:30) Genesis 6:2 marks the breaking down of the separation between the godly line of Seth and the godless line of Cain, and so the failure of the testimony to Mar-Yah committed to the line of Seth (Genesis 4:26). For apostasy there is no remedy but judgement. (Isaiah 1:2-7,24,25; Hebrews 6:4-8; 10:26-31)

6:5 imagination. Signifying also all their purposes and desires.

6:14. ark. Type of Messiah as the refuge of His people from judgement (Hebrews 11:7). In strictness of application this speaks of the preservation through the "great tribulation" (Matthew 24:21,22) of the remnant of Israel who will turn to Mar-Yah.

6:19 In addition to two animals, etc., commanded to be preserved for future increase, the further command was given more than 100 years later to take of clean beasts, i.e, acceptable for sacrifice, seven each. Exodus gives ten such beasts, or but seventy in all. Modern ships carry hundreds of live beasts, with their food, besides scores of human beings.

Chapter 7

7:1 Then God said to Noah, Enter into the ark; you and all your household, for you alone have I seen righteous before me in this generation. 2 Of all clean animals you shall take with you seven pairs, both males and females; and of the beasts that are not clean two pairs, males and females. 3 Likewise, of the fowls of the air that are clean seven pairs, both males and the females; to keep their posterity alive upon the face of the earth. 4 For in seven days I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living thing that I have made will I destroy from off the face of the earth.

5 And Noah did according to all that Mar-Yah commanded him. 6 And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters came upon the earth. 7 And Noah, with his sons and his wife and his sonsí wives, went into the ark because of the waters of the flood. 8 Of clean animals, and of unclean animals, and of fowls, and of everything that creeps upon the earth, 9 There went in two and two with Noah into the ark, the males and the females, as God had commanded Noah. 10 And it came to pass after seven days that the waters of the flood came upon the earth.

11 In the six hundredth year of Noahís life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, on that very day all the fountains of the great deep burst forth and the windows of heaven were opened. 12 And the rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.

13 On that same day entered Noah and Shem and Ham and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noahís wife, and the three wives of his sons with him, into the ark; 14 They and every beast after its kind and all the cattle after their kind and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth after its kind and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every sort. 15 They went with Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh in which there is the breath of life. 16 And they that entered, males and females of every living thing went in, as God had commanded him. Then Mar-Yah shut him in.

17 And the flood lasted forty days upon the earth; and the waters increased and bore up the ark so that it was lifted up above the earth. 18 And the waters prevailed and rose higher upon the earth; and the ark floated on the face of the waters. 19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; so that all the high mountains under the whole heaven were covered. 20 Fifteen cubits above the mountains did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.

21 And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, both of fowl and of cattle and of wild beast and of every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth and every man: 22 Everything in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that was on the dry land, died. 23 And every living thing was destroyed that was upon the face of the ground, both man and animals and the creeping things and the fowl of the air; they were destroyed from the earth; and Noah only remained, and those who were with him in the ark. 24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.

Chapter 8

8:1 And God remembered Noah and every living thing and all the animals and all the fowls that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to blow over the earth, and the waters became calm; 2 The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, and the rain from the sky was restrained; 3 And the waters receded from the earth gradually; and after the end of a hundred and fifty clays the waters abated.

4 And in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, the ark rested upon the mountains of Kardo. 5 And the waters decreased gradually until the tenth month; on the first day of the tenth month, the tops of the mountains were seen.

6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made; 7 And he sent forth a raven which went to and fro, but did not return until the waters were dried up from the face of the earth. 8 Then he sent forth a dove from the ark, to see if the waters had abated from the face of the ground; 9 But the dove found no resting place for her foot, and she returned to him in the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth. Then he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her into the ark with him. 10 And he waited yet another seven days; and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; 11 And the dove came back to him in the evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf plucked off; so Noah knew that the waters had subsided from off the earth. 12 And he waited yet another seven days, and sent forth the dove; but the dove did not return again to him any more.

13 And it came to pass in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 14 And in the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

15 And God spoke to Noah, saying, 16 Go forth out of the ark, you and your wife and your sons and your sonsí wives with you. 17 Bring forth with you every beast of every kind that is with you, both fowl and cattle and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth; that they may breed abundantly on the earth and be fruitful and multiply upon the face of the earth. 18 So Noah went forth, and his sons and his wife and his sonsí wives with him; 19 Every beast, every domestic animal, and every fowl, and whatever creeps upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.

20 Then Noah built an altar to Mar-Yah; and took of every clean animal and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. 21 And Mar-Yah smelled the sweet savour; and Mar-Yah said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for manís sake; for the inclination of manís heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again destroy any more every living thing, as I have done. 22 From henceforth, while the earth remains, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

Study Notes for Chapter 8
8:7 raven. The raven and the dove have been thought to stand for the believer's two natures: the "old man" satisfied with a world under judgement; the "new man" finding satisfaction only in the things of the new creation.

8:21 The declaration of the Noahic Covenant subjects humanity to a new test. Its distinctive feature is the institution, for the first time, of human government — the government of man by man. The highest function of government is the judicial taking of life. All other governmental powers are implied in that. Man is responsible to govern the world for God. That responsibility rested upon the whole race, Jew and Gentile, until the failure of Israel under their Covenant brought the judgement of the Captivities, when "the times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24) began, and the government of the world passed exclusively into Gentile hands (Daniel 2:36-45; Luke 21:24; Acts 15:14-17) That both Israel and the Gentiles have governed for self, not God, is sadly apparent. The judgement of the confusion of tongues ended the racial testing; that of the captivities the Jewish; while the Gentile testing will end in the smiting of the Image (Daniel 2) and the judgement of the nations (Matthew 25:31-46)

Chapter 9

9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. 2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moves upon the earth, and all the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered. 3 Every moving thing that is alive shall be food for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things. 4 Only flesh with the life thereof, that is, the blood thereof, you shall not eat. 5 And surely your lifeblood will I f avenge; of every beast will I avenge it, and at the hand of man; and at the hand of a man and his brother will I avenge the life of man. 6 Whoever sheds the blood of men, by men shall his blood be shed; for man was made in the image of God. 7 As for you, be fruitful, and multiply; bring forth abundantly on the earth, and multiply in it.

8 And God spoke to Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, 9 As for me, behold, I will establish my covenant with you and with your descendants after you; 10 And with every living creature that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every wild beast of the earth with you; with all that come out of the ark, and with every beast of the earth. 11 And I will establish my covenant with you; so that never again shall all flesh perish by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.

12 And God said to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations: 13 I set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between me and the earth. 14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring clouds over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the clouds; 15 And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature that is with you of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. 16 And the bow shall be in the clouds; and I will look upon it as a remembrance of the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth. 17 And God said to Noah, This is the sign of the covenant which I have established between me and all the flesh that is upon the earth,

18 The sons of Noah who went forth out of the ark were Shem and Ham and Japheth; and Ham is the father of Canaan. 19 These three were the sons of Noah; and from them the people spread throughout the earth. 20 And Noah began to till the ground; and he planted a vineyard; 21 And he drank of its wine, and became drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and he told his two brothers outside. 23 And Shem and Japheth took a mantle and laid it upon both their shoulders and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward and they did not see their fatherís nakedness.

24 When Noah awoke from his wine and knew what his younger son had done to him, 25 He said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers. 26 Then he said, Blessed be Mar-Yah God of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant. 27 God shall enrich Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem: and Canaan shall be their servant.

28 And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. 29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years, and he died.

Study Notes for Chapter 9
9:1. The Noahic Covenant. The elements are: (1) The relation of man to the earth under the Adamic Covenant is confirmed (Genesis†8:21) (2) The order of nature is confirmed (Genesis 8:22) (3) Human government is established (Genesis 9:1-6) (4) Earth is secured against another universal judgement by water (Genesis 8:21; 9:11) (5) A prophetic declaration is made that Shem will have a peculiar relation to Mar-Yah (Genesis 9:26,27) All divine revelation is through Semitic men, and Messiah, after the flesh, descends from Shem. (6) A prophetic declaration is made that from Japheth will descend the "enlarged" races (Genesis 9:27). Government, science, and art, speaking broadly, are and have been Japhetic, so that history is the indisputable record of the exact fulfilment of these declarations.

9:13. bow. The bow is not said to have come into existence at this time, but only to have been here invested with the character of a sign, (Exodus 31:13) Typically, the bow, seen upon the storm clouds of judgement (Genesis 7:11) has been thought to speak of the cross where judgement, never to be repeated has been visited upon the believer's sins (Hebrews 10:14-18).

Chapter 10

10:1 Now these are the descendants of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and to them were sons born after the flood. 2 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Mongolia, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. 3 And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Diphar, and Togarmah. 4 And the sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish, China, and Doranim. 5 It was from these that the people were divided into the Islands of the Gentiles and their main lands; every one after his language, after their families, in their nations.

6 And the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 7 And the sons of Cush: Sheba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Daran. 8 And Cush begot Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before Mar-Yah; wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod was a mighty hunter before Mar-Yah. 10 And the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, Erech, Akhar, and Caliah, in the land of Sinar. 11 Out of Sinar went forth the Assyrian and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, 12 And Resen which lies between Nineveh and Calah; the same is a great city. 13 And Mizraim begot Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim 14 And Pathrusim and Casluhim (out of whom came the Philistines) and Caphtorim.

15 And Canaan begot Sidon, his first-born, and Heth, 16 And the Jebusite, the Amorite, the Girgasite, 17 And the Havite, the Arkite, the Sinite, 18 And the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterward the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 19 And the border of the Canaanites extended from Sidon, which is at the entrance of Gadar, as far as Gaza; which is at the entrance of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, as far as Lasha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families and their languages, in their lands and in their nations.

21 To Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the elder brother of Japheth, even to him were children born. 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphakhashar, Lud and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arphakhashar begot Shalah; and Shalah begot Eber. 25 And to Eber were born two sons: the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days the earth was divided; and his brotherís name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan begot Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 28 Obal, Abimael, and Sheba, 29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab; all these were sons of Joktan. 30 The lands which they inhabited extended from Mesha, which is at the entrance of Sepharvim, a mount in the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, their languages, in their lands, after their nations. 32 These are the descendants of the sons of Noah, according to their families, in their nations: and from these the people spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Study Notes for Chapter 10
10:5. islands, or coasts. Settlement would naturally follow the coasts first.                                                                                                                                                                                

Chapter 11

11:1 Now the whole earth spoke one language and with one manner of speech. 2 And it came to pass, as men journeyed from the east, they found a plain in the land of Sinar; and they settled there. 3 And they said one to another, Come, let us make bricks and burn them with fire. And they had bricks for stone, and slime for mortar. 4 Then they said, Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top may reach to heaven; and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

5 And Mar-Yah came down to see the city and the tower which men were building. 6 And Mar-Yah said, Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language; and they have reasoned to do this thing; and now nothing will prevent them from doing that which they have imagined to do. 7 Come, let us go down, and there divide their language so that they may not understand one anotherís speech. 8 So Mar-Yah scattered them abroad from there upon the face of all the earth; and they ceased from building the city. 9 Therefore they called the name of it Babel; because it was there that Mar-Yah confounded the language of all the earth; and from there Mar-Yah scattered them upon the face of all the earth.

10 These are the descendants of Shem: Shem was a hundred years old, and begot Arphakhashar, two years after the flood; 11 And Shem lived after he begot Arphakhashar five hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 12 And Arphakhashar lived thirty-five years, and begot Shalah; 13 And Arphakhashar lived after he begot Shalah four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters. 14 And Shalah lived thirty years, and begot Eber; 15 And Shalah lived after he begot Eber four hundred and three years, and begot sons and daughters. 16 And Eber lived thirty-four years, and begot Peleg: 17 And Eber lived after he begot Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begot sons and daughters. 18 And Peleg lived thirty years, and begot Rau; 19 And Peleg lived after he begot Rau two hundred and nine years, and begot sons and daughters. 20 And Rau lived thirty-two years, and begot Serug; 21 And Rau lived after he begot Serug two hundred and seven years, and begot sons and daughters. 22 And Serug lived thirty years, and begot Nahor; 23 And Serug lived after he begot Nahor two hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 24 And Nahor lived twenty-nine years, and begot Terah; 25 And Nahor lived after he begot Terah one hundred and nineteen years, and begot sons and daughters. 26 And Terah lived seventy-five years, and begot Abram, manor, and Haran.

27 Now these are the descendants of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begot Lot. 28 And Haran died before his father Terah in his native land, in Ur of the Chaldeans. 29 And Abram and Nahor took wives for themselves; the name of Abramís wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahorís wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah and Iscah. 30 But Sarai was barren; she had no child. 31 And Terah took Abram his son, and Lot the son of Haran, his grandson, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abramís wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldeans to go to the land of Canaan: and they came as far as Haran, and they settled there. 32 And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran.

Study Notes for Chapter 11
11:1 one language. The history of Babel ("confusion") strikingly parallels that of the religions of the world. (1) Ambition. Using worldly, not spiritual means, ending in a man-made unity, false ecumenism. (Genesis 11:3,4); (2) the confusion of tongues Genesis 11:7 — innumerable religious groups, sects and denominations.

Genesis 11, Genesis 12 mark an important turning point in the divine dealing. Heretofore the history has been that of the whole Adamic race. There has been neither Jew nor Gentile; all have been one in "the first man Adam." Henceforth, in the Scripture record, humanity must be thought of as a vast stream from which God, in the call of Abram and the creation of the nation of Israel, has but drawn off a slender rill, through which He may at last purify the great river itself. Israel was called to be a witness to the unity of God in the midst of universal idolatry (Deuteronomy 6:4; Isaiah 43:10-12) to illustrate the blessedness of serving the true God (Deuteronomy 33:26-29) to receive and preserve the divine revelations (Deuteronomy 4:5-8); and to produce the Messiah (Genesis 3:15; 21:12; 28:10,14; 49:10; 2 Samuel 7:16,17; Isaiah 4:3,4; Matthew 1:1. The reader of scripture should hold firmly in mind: (1) that from Genesis 12 to Mathew 12:45 the Scriptures have primarily in view Israel, the little rill, not the great Gentile river; though again and again the universality of the ultimate divine intent breaks into view (for example; Genesis 12:3; Isaiah 2:2,4; 5:26; 9:1-2; 11:10-12; 42:1-6; 49:6,12; 52:15; 54:3; 55:5; 60:3,5, 11-16; 61:6,9; 62:2; 66:12,18,19; Jeremiah 16:19; Joel 3:9,10; Malachi 1:11. (2) that the human race, henceforth called Gentile in distinction from Israel, goes on under the Adamic and Noahic covenants; and that for the race (outside Israel) the dispensations of Conscience and of Human government continue. Conscience never acquits: it either "accuses" or "excuses." A wholly new responsibility arises when either Jew or Gentile knows the Gospel (John 3:18,19,36; 15:22-24; 16:9; 1 John 5:9-12.

Chapter 12

12:1 Now Mar-Yah said to Abram, Depart from your country, and from the place of your nativity, and from your fatherís house, to a land that I will show you; 2 And I will make of you a great people, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and you shall be a blessing; 3 And I will bless those who bless you, and curse those who curse you. In you and in your seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.

4 So Abram did as Mar-Yah had spoken to him; and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed from Haran. 5 And Abram took Sarai his wife and Lot his brotherís son and all their possessions which they had gained and the persons that they had gotten in Haran, and they went on their way to the land of Canaan, and to the land of Canaan they came.

6 And Abram passed through the land as far as the country of Shechem, and as far as the oak of Mamre. And the Canaanites were settled then in the land. 7 Then Mar-Yah appeared to Abram and said to him, To your descendants will I give this land; and Abram built there an altar to Mar-Yah, for he had appeared to him. 8 And from thence he removed to a mountain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar to Mar-Yah and called upon the name of Mar-Yah, 9 And Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south.

10 Now there was a famine in the land; so Abram went down to Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was severe in the land. 11 And it came to pass when he was about to enter into Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that you are a woman beautiful to look upon; 12 And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians see you, they will say, This is his wife; and they will kill me, but they will spare you. 13 Say, therefore, that you are my sister because I will be treated well for your sake; and my life shall be spared because of you.

14 And it came to pass when Abram entered Egypt, the Egyptians saw that his wife was very beautiful. 15 The princes of Pharaoh also saw her and praised her before Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaohís house. 16 And Abram was well treated for her sake; and he became the owner of sheep, oxen, he asses, menservants, maidservants, she asses, and camels. 17 And Mar-Yah afflicted Pharaoh and his household with great plagues because of Sarai, Abramís wife. 18 So Pharaoh called Abram, and said to him, What is this that you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife? 19 Why did you say, She is my sister, so that I took her for my wife? Now, therefore, here is your wife, take her, and leave the country. 20 And Pharaoh charged his men concerning him; and sent him away together with his wife, and all that he had.

Study Notes for Chapter 12
12:1 For Abraham, and his descendants it is evident that the Abrahamic Covenant (Genesis†15:18) made a great change. They became distinctively the heirs of promise. That covenant is wholly gracious and unconditional. The descendants of Abraham had but to abide in their own land to inherit every blessing. In Egypt they lost their blessings, but not their covenant. Grace had prepared a deliverer (Moses), provided a sacrifice for the guilty, and by divine power brought them out of bondage (Exodus 19:4). The Dispensation of Promise extends from Genesis 12:1 to Exodus 19:8, and was exclusively Israelitish. The dispensation must be distinguished from the covenant. The former is a mode of testing; the latter is everlasting because unconditional. The Law does abrogate the Abrahamic Covenant; only the dispensation, as a testing of Israel, ended at the giving of the Law.

12:8 Beth-el. One of the sacred places of Canaan, meaning, house of God (Genesis 28:1-22). It is characteristic of all apostasy that Jeroboam chose this sacred place in which to erect an idol (1 Kings 12:28,32) and of divine judgement upon apostasy that God should decree the destruction of Beth-el, despite its sacred memories (1†Kings 13:1-5; 2†Kings 23:15-17; Amos 3:14,15). God never hesitates to cast aside that which no longer serves His purpose.

12:10 A famine was often a disciplinary action of God's people in the land. (Genesis 26:1; 42:5; Ruth 1:1; 2†Samuel 24:13; Psalm 105:16). The resort to Egypt (the world) is typical of the tendency to substitute for lost spiritual power the fleshly resources of the world, instead of seeking, through confession and amendment, the restoration of God's presence and favour.

Chapter 13

13:1 And Abram went up from Egypt, e and his wife and all that he had, and Lot with him, into the south. 2 And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold. 3 And he went on his journey from the south as far as Beth-el, to the place where he had pitched his tent at first, between Beth-el and Ai; 4 To the place of the altar which he had built there at the first; and there Abram had called upon the name of Mar-Yah.

5 And Lot also, who went with Abram, had large flocks, herds, and tents. 6 And the land was not able to port them, that they might dwell together; for their herds were so large that they could not dwell together. 7 And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abramís cattle and the herdsmen of Lotís cattle; and the Canaanites and the Perizzites dwelt then in the land. 8 And Abram said to Lot, Let there be no strife between me and you, and between my shepherds and your shepherds; for we are brethren. 9 Behold the whole land is before you, separate yourself from me; if you choose the left hand, then I will choose the right hand; or if you depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left.

10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and saw all the land of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere, before Mar-Yah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the garden of God, like the land of Egypt at the entrance of Zoan. 11 Then Lot chose for himself all the land of Jordan; and Lot journeyed east; thus they separated one brother from the other. 12 Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, and Lot dwelt in the villages of the plain, thus possessing the land as far as Sodom. 13 Now the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners in the presence of Mar-Yah exceedingly.

14 And Mar-Yah said to Abram, after Lot had separated from him, Lift up now your eyes, and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward; 15 For all the land which you see, to you will I give it, and to your descendants forever. 16 And I will make your descendants like the dust of the earth; so that if you can number the dust of the earth, then shall your descendants also be numbered. 17 Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it; for I will give it to you. 18 Then Abram removed his tent and came and dwelt by the oak of Mamre which is in Hebron, and built there an altar to Mar-Yah

Chapter 14

14:1 And it came to pass in the days of Amarphel king of Sinar, Arioch king of Dalasar, Cardlaamar king of Elam, and Tarael king of Gelites 2 That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, Shemer king of Zeboim, and the king of Bela, that is, Zoar. 3 All of these joined together in the valley of Siddim, which is the Salt Sea. 4 Twelve years they served Cardlaamar, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 5 And in the fourteenth year came Cardlaamar, and the kings that were with him, and smote the mighty men who were in Ashteroth Karnaim and the valiant men who were in the city, and the Emins in Shaveh Koriathaim, 6 And the Horites in the mountains of Seir, as far as the oak of Paran, which is in the wilderness. 7 And they returned, and came to En-dina, which is Rakim (Kadesh) and they smote all the princes of the Amalekites and also the Amorites who dwelt in En-gad. 8 And there went out the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboim, and the king of Bela (that is, Zoar); all of these made war in the valley of Siddim, 9 With Cardlaamar, the king of Elam, Tarael the king of Gelites, Amarphel king of Sinar, and Arioch king of Dalasar; four kings against five. 10 And the valley of Siddim was full of bitumen pits; and the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, and fell there; and those who survived fled to the mountain. 11 And the raiders took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their provisions, and went their way. 12 And they carried away Lot, Abramís brotherís son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed.

13 And there came one who escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew, who dwelt by the oak of Mature, which belonged to the Amorite, brother of Aner and brother of Eshcol, who were allies of Abram. 14 And when Abram heard that his nephew had been taken captive, he armed his young men, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued the raiders as far as Dan. 15 And he divided his forces against them by night, he and his servants, and defeated them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. 16 And he brought back all the goods, and also brought back Lot, his nephew, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.

17 And the king of Sodom went out to greet him, after his return from the destruction of the forces of Cardlaamar, and the kings who were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, that is, the kingís valley. 18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was the priest of the Most High God. 19 And he blessed him, saying, Blessed be Abram to God Most High, possessor of heaven and earth; 20 And blessed be the Most High God, who has delivered your enemies into your hands. And Abram gave him tithes of everything.

21 And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the people, and take the goods for yourself. 22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hands to the God Most High, the possessor of heaven and earth, 23 That I will not take of anything that belongs to you, from a thread to a shoestring, lest you should say, I have made Abram rich; 24 Save that which the young men have eaten and the portions of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their portions.

Study Notes for Chapter 14
14:4. It is Abram the separated man who has power to help. (See Genesis 19:29)

14:18 Melchizedek. A type of Messiah the King-Priest. The type strictly applies to the priestly work of Yeshua in resurrection, since Melchizedek presents only the memorials of sacrifice, bread and wine. "After the order of Melchizedek" (Hebrews 6:20) refers to the royal authority and unending duration of Messiah's high priesthood (Hebrews 7:23,24). The Aaronic priesthood was often interrupted by death. Yeshua is a priest after the order of Melchizedek, as King of righteousness, King of peace; (Isaiah 11:4-9; Hebrews 7:2) and in the endlessness of his priesthood; but the Aaronic priesthood typifies His priestly work.

14:18 Most High God. Hebrew, El Elyon. "Elyon means simply "highest." (1) The first revelation of this name (Genesis 14:8) indicates its distinctive meanings. Abram, returning from his victory over the confederated kings (Genesis 14:1-17) is met by Melchizedek, King of Salem. The "priest of the most high God" (El Elyon), who blesses Abram in the name of El Elyon, "possessor of heaven and earth."

Chapter 15

15:1 After these things the word of Mar-Yah came to Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram; I am your shield, and your reward is exceedingly great.

2 And Abram said, O Mar-Yah God, what will thou give me, for I will die childless, and Eliezer of Damascus, one of my household, will be my heir? 3 And Abram said, Behold, thou hast given me no son; and, behold, one of the members of my household will be my heir. 4 Then Mar-Yah said to him, This man shall not be your heir; but your own son that shall come out of your own loins shall be your heir. 5 And he brought him outside, and said to him, Look now toward heaven and number the stars, if you are able to number them; and he said to him, So shall your descendants be. 6 And Abram believed in Mar-Yah; and it was counted to him for righteousness.

7 And he said to him, I am Mar-Yah, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to inherit it. 8 And Abram said, O Mar-Yah God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? 9 And he said to him, Take for yourself a heifer, three years old, a three year old ram, a three year old she-goat, a pigeon, and a young dove. 10 And he took to himself all these, and cut them in two, and laid each piece against another; but the birds he did not divide. 11 And when the birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, Abram drove them away.

12 And when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell on Abram; and, lo, fear and a great darkness fell upon him. 13 And Mar-Yah said to Abram, Know of a surety that your descendants shall be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and shall be in servitude: and they shall afflict them for four hundred years; 14 But I will judge the nation which they shall serve; and afterward they shall come out with great wealth. 15 And you shall depart from this life and go to your fathers in peace; and you shall be buried at a good old age. 16 And after four centuries, they shall return here; for the iniquities of the Amorites are not yet full.

17 And it came to pass that when the sun had set and it was dark, behold there appeared a smoking furnace and a burning torch that passed between those pieces. 18 On that day Mar-Yah made a covenant with Abram, saying, To your descendants have I given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates: 19 The land of the Kenites, Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, 20 The Hittites, the Perizzites, the Giants, 21 The Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.

Study Notes for Chapter 15
15:18. covenant. The Abrahamic Covenant as formed Genesis 12:1-4 and confirmed (Genesis 13:14-17; 15:1-7 17:1-8) is in seven distinct parts: (1) "I will make of thee a great nation." Fulfilled in a threefold way: (a) In a natural posterity — "as the dust of the earth Genesis 13:16; John 8:37, viz. the Hebrew people. (b) In a spiritual posterity — "look now toward heaven . . . so shall thy seed be" John 8:39 viz. all men of faith, whether Jew or Gentile. (c) fulfilled also through Ishmael (Genesis 17:18-20) (2) "I will bless thee." Fulfilled in two ways: (a) temporally (Genesis 13:14,15,17,18; 24:34, 35) (b) spiritually (Genesis 15:6; John 8:56) (3) "And make thy name great." Abraham's is one of the universal names. (4) "I will bless them that bless thee." In fulfilment closely related to the next clause. (5) "And curse him that curseth thee." Wonderfully fulfilled in the history of the dispersion. It has invariably fared ill with the people who have persecuted the Jew — well with those who have protected him. The future will still more remarkably prove this principle (Deuteronomy 30:7; Isaiah 14:1,; Joel 3:1-8; Micah 5:7-9; Haggai 2:22; Zechariah 14:1-3; Matthew 25:40,45). (6) "In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed." This is the great evangelic promise fulfilled in Abraham's Seed, Messiah (John 8:56-58). It brings into greater definiteness the promise of the Adamic Covenant concerning the Seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15)

17:1 "Almighty God" (Heb. El Shaddai) (1) The etymological signification of Almighty God (El Shaddai) is both interesting and touching. God (El) signifies the "Strong One" (Genesis†1:1). The qualifying word Shaddai is formed from the Hebrew word "shad," the breast, invariably used in Scripture for a woman's breast; (e.g. Genesis 49:25; Job 3:12; Psalms 22:9; Song of Solomon 1:13; 4:5; Song of Songs 7:3,7,8; 8:1,8,10; Isaiah 28:9; Ezekiel 16:7). Shaddai therefore means primarily "the breasted." God is "Shaddai," because He is the Nourisher, the Strength-giver, and so, in a secondary sense, the Satisfier, who pours himself into believing lives. As a fretful, unsatisfied babe is not only strengthened and nourished from the mother's breast, but also is quieted, rested, satisfied, so El Shaddai is that name of God which sets Him forth as the Strength-giver and Satisfier of His people. It is on every account to be regretted that "Shaddai" was translated "Almighty." The primary name El or Elohim sufficiently signifies almightiness. "All-sufficient" would far better express both the Hebrew meaning and the characteristic use of the name in Scripture. (2) Almighty God (El Shaddai) not only enriches, but makes fruitful. This is nowhere better illustrated than in the first occurrence of the name (Genesis 17:1-8). To a man ninety-nine years of age, and "as good as dead" (Hebrews 11:12) He said: "I am the Almighty God El Shaddai . . . I will . . . multiply thee exceedingly." To the same purport is the use of the name in Genesis 28:3,4. (3) As Giver of fruitfulness, Almighty God (El Shaddai) chastens His people. For the moral connection of chastening with fruit bearing (see John 15:2; Hebrews 12:10; Ruth 1:20). Hence, Almighty is the characteristic name of God in Job, occurring thirty-one times in that book. The hand of El Shaddai falls upon Job, the best man of his time, not in judgment, but in purifying unto greater fruitfulness (Job 5:17-25).

Chapter 16

16:1 Now Sarai, Abramís wife, bore him no children; and she had an Egyptian handmaid, whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said to Abram, Behold now, Mar-Yah has restrained me from bearing children; therefore go in unto my maid; it may be that I may be consoled by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. 3 And Sarai, Abramís wife, took Hagar her Egyptian maid, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. This happened after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan.

4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes. 5 And Sarai said to Abram, My wrong be upon you; I gave my maid into your bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes; may Mar-Yah judge between me and you. 6 But Abram said to Sarai his wife, Behold your maid is at your disposal; do to her as it pleases you. And when Sarai dealt harshly with her, she fled from her.

7 And the angel of Mar-Yah found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain on the road to Gadar. 8 And he said to her, Hagar, maid of Sarai, where have you come from, and where are you going? And she said, I flee from the presence of my mistress Sarai. 9 And the angel of Mar-Yah said to her, Return to your mistress, and submit yourself under her hands.

10 And again the angel of Mar-Yah said to her, I will greatly multiply your descendants, that they can not be numbered because of their multitude. 11 And the angel of Mar-Yah said to her, Behold, you are with child, and shall bear a son, and you shall call his name Ishmael; because Mar-Yah has heard of your afflictions. 12 And he will be like a wild ass among men; with his hand against every man, and every manís hand against him, and he shall dwell on the borders of all his brethren. 13 And she called the name of Mar-Yah who spoke to her, and said, Thou art God whom I saw; for she said, Behold, I have also seen a vision after he had seen me. 14 Therefore she called the well, Beer-di-khaya-khizan (which means, the well of the Living One who saw me). Behold, it is between Rakim and Gadar.

15 And Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram called his sonís name, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael. 16 And Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to him.

Chapter 17

17:1 When Abram was ninety-nine years old, Mar-Yah appeared to him, and said to him, I am the Almighty God; walk well before me, and be faultless. 2 And I will make my covenant between me and you and will multiply you exceedingly. 3 And Abram fell on his face; and God talked with him, saying,

4 As for me, behold, I am establishing my covenant with you, and you shall be a father of many peoples. 5 Neither shall your name any more be called Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for I have made you a father of many peoples. 6 And I will make you fruitful, and multiply you exceedingly; and I will make you father of many nations, and kings shall come out of your loins.

7 And I will establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, and I will be God to you and to your descendants after you. 8 And I will give to you, and your descendants after you, the land in which you sojourn, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting inheritance; and I will be their God. 9 And God said to Abraham, You shall keep my covenant, you, and your descendants after you throughout their generations. 10 This is my covenant, which you shall keep between me and you and your descendants after you: Every male among you shall be circumcised. 11 And you shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant between me and you. 12 And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, who is not of your descendants. 13 He that is born in your house, and he that is bought with your money, shall be circumcised; and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be cut off from his people; for he has broken my covenant.

15 Then God said to Abraham, As for Sarai your wife, you shall not call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name. 16 And I will bless her, and also I will give you a son by her; yea, I will bless him and make nations of him; and the kings of nations shall come from him. 17 Then Abraham fell on his face and laughed and said in his heart, Shall a son be born to him who is a hundred years old? Or shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a child? 18 And Abraham said to God, O that Ishmael might live in thy presence! 19 And God said to Abraham, Truly, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son; and you shall call his name Isaac; and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant, and with his descendants after him. 20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I have blessed him, and will multiply him, and will make him exceedingly great; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. 21 But I will establish my covenant with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear to you at this set time next year. 22 And when God was through talking with him, he went up from Abraham.

23 And Abraham took Ishmael his son and all of those that were born in his house and all of those that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abrahamís household, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in that very day, as God had said unto him. 24 And Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 In that very day was Abraham circumcised and Ishmael his son 27 And all the men of his household, both born in the house and bought with money. He also circumcised some of the strangers with him.

Chapter 18

18:1 And Mar-Yah revealed himself to him by the oak of Mamre, as he was sitting at the door of the tent in the heat of the day; 2 And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, behold, three men stood at a distance from him; and when he saw them, he ran from the door of the tent to meet them and bowed himself to the ground, 3 And said, O Mar-Yah, if now I have found mercy in thy sight, do not pass away from thy servant; 4 Let me bring a little water and wash your feet and rest yourselves under the tree; 5 And take a morsel of bread and sustain your hearts; after that you shall go on your way, since you have come to your servant. And they said, So do as you have said. 6 So Abraham hastened into the tent to Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three measures of fine flour, knead it, and make cakes on a griddle. 7 And Abraham ran to the herd, and took a calf fat and good, and gave it to a servant, and he hastened to prepare it. 8 And he took butter and milk and the calf which he had prepared, and set them before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they ate.

9 And they said to him, Where is Sarah your wife? And he said, Behold, she is in the tent. 10 And Mar-Yah said, I will certainly return to you at this time next year, and 1o, Sarah your wife shall be with child, and shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door which was behind her. 11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well advanced in years; and Sarah was beyond the age of childbearing. 12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am grown old, shall I renew my youth, my lord being old also? 13 And Mar-Yah said to Abraham, Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I truly bear a child, when I am so old? 14 Is anything too hard for Mar-Yah? I will return to you at this season, and Sarah your wife shall be with child, and shall have a son. 15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I did not laugh; because she was afraid. And he said, No; but you did laugh.

16 And the men rose up from there and looked toward Sodom; and Abraham went with them to see them off. 17 And Mar-Yah said, Shall I hide from my servant Abraham the thing which I am going to do, 18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed through him? 19 For I know him well, and that he will command his children and his household after him, to keep the ways of Mar-Yah, to do justice and righteousness; for Mar-Yah shall fulfil for Abraham the thing that he has spoken concerning him. 20 And Mar-Yah said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has come before me and their sins are very grievous, 21 I will go down now and see whether they have done altogether according to their cry which has come before me; and if not, I will know. 22 So the men turned from there and went toward Sodom; but Abraham stood yet before Mar-Yah.

23 And Abraham drew near and said, Wilt thou in thine anger destroy the righteous with the sinners? 24 pose there are fifty righteous within the city; wilt thou in thine anger destroy it, and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are in it? 25 Far be it from thee to do such a thing as this, to slay the innocent with the guilty, far be it from thee, O thou Judge of the whole earth! Such a judgment should never be carried out. 26 And Mar-Yah said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare the whole country for their sake. 27 And Abraham answered and said, Behold, I have ventured to speak before Mar-Yah, and yet I am but dust and ashes; 28 pose there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt thou destroy the whole city for the lack of five men? And he said, If I find there forty-five, I will not destroy it. 29 And Abraham spoke to him and said, pose there shall be forty found there? And he said, I will not destroy it, if I find there forty. 30 Then Abraham said, Oh let not Mar-Yah be displeased and I will speak: pose there shall thirty be found there? And he said, I will not destroy it, if I find thirty there. 31 And he said, Behold, I have ventured to speak before Mar-Yah; pose there shall be twenty found there? And he said, I will not destroy it for the sake of twenty. 32 And he said, Oh, let not Mar-Yah be displeased, and I will speak only once more; pose ten shall be found there? And he said, I will not destroy it for the sake of ten. 33 And Mar-Yah went his way when he had finished communing with Abraham; and Abraham returned to his place.

Chapter 19

19:1 And there came two angels to Sodom in the evening; and Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom; and Lot saw them and rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground; 2 And he said, My lords, turn aside, I pray you, into your servantís house and spend the night and wash your feet; then rise up early in the morning and go on your way. And they said, No, we will spend the night in the street. 3 But Lot urged them greatly; and they turned in to him and entered into his house; and he made them a feast and baked unleavened cakes and they ate.

4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, that is, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the people of the town; 5 And they called to Lot and said to him, Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us that we may know them. 6 And Lot went out at the door to them; and he shut the door after him. 7 And Lot said to them, I pray you, my brethren, do not so wickedly. 8 Behold now, I have two daughters who have, not known man; let me bring them out to you, and do to them whatever you please; only to these men do nothing; for they have come under the protection of my roof. 9 And they said, Get away. And they said again, This fellow came to sojourn among us, and now he tries to judge us; and they said to Lot, Now we will deal worse with you than with them. Then Lot fought desperately with them, and they drew near to break the door. 10 But the men put forth their hands and pulled Lot into the house to them and locked the door. 11 And they smote the men that were at the door of the house with blindness, from the least to the greatest, so that they became tired trying in vain to find the door.

12 And the men said to Lot, What are you doing in this place? Now, your sons-in-law, your sons, your daughters, and whatsoever you have in this city, take them out of this place; 13 For we will destroy this place, because the cry of the oppressed has come before Mar-Yah; and Mar-Yah has sent us to destroy it. 14 Then Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law who married his daughters, and said, Arise, get out of this place; for Mar-Yah will destroy it. But his sons-in-law thought he was joking.

15 And when the morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, Arise, take your wife and your two daughters who are not given in marriage, lest you be engulfed in the sins of the city. 16 But Lot lingered; then the angels held his hand, the hand of his wife, and the hands of his two daughters, because Mar-Yah pitied him; and they took him out and set him outside the city. 17 And it came to pass when they had brought them out of the city, they said to Lot: Now escape for your life; do not look back nor stop anywhere in the plain, but flee to the mountain lest you be consumed. 18 And Lot said to them, I beseech you, my lords, 19 Behold now, your servant has found mercy in your sight, and great is the favor which you have shown to me in saving my life; but I cannot escape to the mountain, lest evil overtake me and I die; 20 Behold now, this town is near to flee to, and it is a little one. Oh, let me escape there, and behold, because it is a little one my life will be spared. 21 And he said to him, See, I have granted you this thing also that I will not overthrow the city of which you have spoken. 22 Make haste and escape there; for I cannot do anything till you enter into it. Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar. 23 The sun was risen upon the earth when Lot entered into Zoar.

24 Then Mar-Yah rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the presence of Mar-Yah out of heaven; 25 And he overthrew those cities and all the plain and all the inhabitants of the region and that which grew on the ground.

26 But his wife looked back from behind him and she became a pillar of salt.

27 And Abraham rose up early in the morning and went to the place where he had stood before Mar-Yah; 28 And he looked toward Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all the region of the plain, and beheld, 1o, the smoke of the country went up like the smoke of a furnace. 29 And it came to pass when God destroyed the cities of the plain that God remembered Abraham and sent Lot out of the midst of the devastated region, when he overthrew the cities wherein Lot dwelt.

30 And Lot went up out of Zoar and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters were with him; for he was afraid to live in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, both he and his two daughters. 31 And the first-born said to the younger, Behold our father is old and there is not a man in the land to take us for wives after the manner of all the earth: 32 Come, let us make our father drink wine and we will lie with him so that we may raise an offspring from our father. 33 And they made their father drink wine that night; and the first-born went in and lay with her father; and he did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose. 34 And it came to pass on the next day, the first-born said to the younger, Behold. I lay last night with my father; let us make him drink wine tonight also: and then you go in and lie with him so that we may raise offspring from our father. 35 So they made their father drink wine that night also; and the younger went in and lay with him; and he did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose. 36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child by their father. 37 And the first-born bore a son and called his name Moab; he is the father of the Moabites to this day. 38 And the younger also bore a son and called his name Bar-ammi; he is the father of the Ammonites to this day.

Study Notes for Chapter 19
19:36 Abraham and Lot are contrasted characters. Of the same stock (Genesis 11:31) subjected to the same environment, and both justified men (Genesis 15:6) the contrast in character and career is shown to be the result of their respective choices at the crisis of their lives. Lot "chose him all the plain of Jordan" for present advantage; Abraham "looked for a city which hath foundations" (Hebrews 11:10; Genesis 13:18) "came and dwelt in the plain of Mamre (fatness), which is in Hebron" (communion). The men remain types of the worldly and spiritual believer.

Chapter 20

20:1 And Abraham journeyed from thence toward the south country, and settled between Rakim and Gadar, and Abraham sojourned in Gadar. 2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister; and Abimeleck king of Gadar sent and took Sarah.

3 But God came to Abimeleck in a dream by night and said to him, Behold, you will die on account of the woman whom you have taken; for she is another manís wife. 4 But Abimeleck had not touched her; and he said, O Mar-Yah, wilt thou slay an innocent people? 5 Behold, he said, She is my sister; and she herself also said, He is my brother; in the innocence of my heart and purity of my hands have I done this. 6 And God said to him in a dream, Yea, I know that you have done this in the innocence of your heart; for I also restrained you from sinning against me; therefore I did not permit you to touch her. 7 Now therefore restore the manís wife, for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for you, and you shall live; but if you do not restore her, then know that you will surely die, you, and all your family.

8 Therefore Abimeleck rose early in the morning and called all of his servants and told them all these words; and the men were exceedingly afraid. 9 Then Abimeleck called Abraham and said to him, What have I done to you? and what crime have I committed against you, that you have brought on me and on my kingdom such a great sin? You have done to me things that ought not to be done. 10 And Abimeleck said to Abraham, What induced you to do this thing? 11 And Abraham said, Because I thought, perhaps there is no fear of God in this country; and they will slay me for my wifeís sake. 12 And yet truly she is my sister; she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife. 13 And it came to pass when God brought me forth out of my fatherís house, I said to her, This is the favor which you shall do to me; at every place whither we shall go, say of me, He is my brother.

14 And Abimeleck took sheep and oxen and male and female servants and gave them to Abraham and restored to him Sarah his wife. 15 Then Abimeleck said to Abraham, Behold, my land is before you; dwell wherever you please. 16 And to Sarah he said, Behold, I have given a thousand pieces of silver to your brother; behold, it is given for you, because you have been humbled in the eyes of my people, and because of the other things for which I have reproved you. 17 So Abraham prayed to God and God healed Abimeleck and his wife and his maidservants, and they bore children. 18 For Mar-Yah had fast closed up the wombs of all women in the household of Abimeleck because of Sarah, Abrahamís wife.

Chapter 21

21:1 And Mar-Yah remembered Sarah, as he had said, and Mar-Yah did to Sarah as he had spoken. 2 For Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. 3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, as God had commanded him. 5 And Abraham was a hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him. 6 And Sarah said, God has made me to rejoice today exceedingly; everyone that hears the news will rejoice with me. 7 And she said, Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would give suck to children? For I have borne him a son in his old age. 8 And the child grew and was weaned; and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.

9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking. 10 Therefore she said to Abraham, Expel this maidservant and her son; for the son of this maidservant shall not be heir with my son Isaac. 11 And the thing was very grievous in Abrahamís sight because of his son. 12 And God said to Abraham, Let it not be grievous in your sight because of the boy and because of your maidservant; whatever Sarah tells you, hearken to her voice; for your descendants shall come through Isaac. 13 And also of the son of the maidservant will I make a great nation because he is your offspring.

14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning and took bread and a skin containing water and gave them to Hagar, putting them on her shoulder, and the boy; and sent her away. And she departed, and lost her way in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. 15 And the water in the skin was spent, and she cast the boy under one of the shrubs. 16 And she went and sat down opposite him about the distance of a bowshot; for she said, Let me not see the death of the boy. And she sat down opposite him and lifted up her voice and wept. 17 And Mar-Yah heard the voice of the boy; and the angel of God called to Hagar from heaven, and said to her, What troubles you, Hagar? Fear not; for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is. 18 Arise, take up the boy, and hold him fast in your arms; for I will make him a great nation. 19 Then God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water; and she went and filled the skin with water and gave the boy a drink. 20 And God was with the boy; and he grew up and dwelt in the wilderness of Paran and learned to become an archer in the wilderness of Paran. 21 And his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.

22 And it came to pass at that time that Abimeleck and Phichol, the general of his army, said to Abraham, God is with you in all that you do; 23 Now therefore swear to me by God in this place that you will never deal falsely with me, nor with my family, nor with my descendants; but according to the kindness that I have done to you, you shall do to me and to the land wherein you have sojourned. 24 And Abraham said, I will swear. 25 And Abraham reproved Abimeleck because of a well which Abrahamís servants had dug and which Abimeleckís servants had seized. 26 And Abimeleck said, I do not know who has done this thing; neither did you tell me, nor have I heard of it until today. 27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimeleck; and both of them made a covenant. 28 And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves. 29 And Abimeleck said to Abraham, What is the meaning of these seven ewe lambs of the flock which you have set by themselves? 30 And he said, For these seven ewe lambs you shall take of my hands that they may be a witness for me that I have digged this well. 31 Therefore he called that place Beer-sheba, because there they swore both of them. 32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer-sheba; then Abimeleck and Phichol, the general of the army, rose up and returned to the land of the Philistines.

33 And Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba and called there on the name of Mar-Yah Everlasting. 34 And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines for a long time.

Chapter 22

22:1 And it came to pass after these things that God tested Abraham and said to him, Abraham. And he said, Behold, here I am. 2 And he said, Take now your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of the Amorites; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I will tell you.

3 And Abraham rose up early in the morning and saddled his ass and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son, and cut wood for the burnt offering and rose up and went to the place of which God had told him. 4 And on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place afar off. 5 And he said to his young men, You stay here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder to worship and return to you. 6 And Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and laid it upon Isaac his son, and he took the fire in a container and a knife in his hand, and they went both of them together. 7 And Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, My father. And he answered. Here I am, my son. And Isaac said, Behold the fire and the wood: but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? 8 And Abraham said, God will provide himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son. So they went both of them together. 9 And they came to the place of which God had told him; and Abraham built an altar there and laid the wood in order and bound Isaac his son and laid him on the altar upon the wood. 10 Then Abraham stretched forth his hand and took the knife to slay his son.

11 And the angel of Mar-Yah called to him from heaven and said. Abraham! Abraham! And he said, Here am I. 12 And he said to him, Do not lay your hand on the boy, neither shall you harm him; for now I know that you are a man who reveres God, seeing that you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me. 13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold a ram caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up for a burnt offering instead of his son. 14 And Abraham called the name of that place Mariah-nekhzey, that is, Mar-Yah will provide, as it is said to this day on this mountain, Mar-Yah shall provide.

15 And the angel of Mar-Yah called to Abraham from heaven a second time 16 And said, I have sworn by myself, says Mar-Yah, for because you have done this thing and have not withheld your son, your only son, from me, 17 I will surely bless you, and I will surely multiply your descendants as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is on the sea shore; and your descendants shall inherit the lands of their enemies; 18 And by your seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed because you have obeyed my voice. 19 So Abraham returned to his young men and they rose up and went together to Beer-sheba, and Abraham dwelt in Beer-sheba.

20 And it came to pass after these things that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah has also borne children to your brother Nahor: 21 Uz his first-born, Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 And Khasar, Hazo, Pilrash, Jarlaph, and Bethuel. 23 And Bethuel begot Rebekah; these eight Milcah did bear to Nahor, Abrahamís brother. 24 And his concubine, whose name was Romah, also bore Tebah, Gaham, Thahash, and Maachah.

Study Notes for Chapter 22
22:1 The spiritual experience of Abraham was marked by four great crises, each of which involved a surrender of something naturally most dear. These were: (1) Country and kindred (Genesis 12:1; Matthew 10:34-39) (2) His nephew, Lot; especially dear to Abraham by nature, as a possible heir and as a fellow believer (Genesis 13:1-18). The completeness of Abraham's separation from one who, though a believer, was a "vessel unto dishonour," is shown by (Genesis 15:1-3; Acts 15:36-40) (3) His own plan about Ishmael (Genesis 17:17,18; 1†Chronicles 13:1-14; 15:1,2). (4) Isaac, "thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest" (Genesis 22:1-19; Hebrews 11:17,18).

22:9 The typical lessons here are: (1) Isaac, type of Messiah obedient unto death; (2) Abraham, type of the Father, who spared not His own son, but delivered Him up for us all (John 3:16); (3) the ram, type of substitution — Messiah offered as a burnt-offering in our stead (Hebrews 10:5-10); (4) resurrection (Hebrews 11:17-19; James 2:21-23)

Chapter 23

23:1 And Sarah was a hundred and twenty-seven years old; these were the years of the life of Sarah. 2 And Sarah died at Koriath Gabarey (the Town of the Giants); that is Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her.

3 And Abraham rose up from before the bier of his dead and spoke to the sons of Heth, saying, 4 I am a stranger and a sojourner with you; give me the possession of a burial ground with you that I may bury my dead out of my sight. 5 And the sons of Heth answered and said to Abraham, 6 Hear us, our lord; you are a prince of God among us; bury your dead in the choicest of our sepulchres; none of us will withhold from you his sepulchre for the burial of your dead. 7 And Abraham stood up and bowed himself to the people of the land, that is, to the Hittites. 8 And he discussed the matter with them and said to them, If you consent that I may bury my dead out of my sight, hear me and entreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar, 9 That he may give me the double cave which belongs to him, which is by the side of his field; let him give it to me for a full price as a possession for a burial ground among you. 10 And Ephron dwelt among the Hittites; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the presence of the Hittites and in the presence of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, 11 No, my lord, listen to me; I will give you the field and the cave which is in it, I will give it to you; in the presence of my people I give it to you; bury your dead. 12 And Abraham bowed down before the people of the land. 13 Then he said to Ephron in the presence of the people of the land, If you are willing, then hearken to me; I will give you money for the price of the field; take it from me, and I will bury my dead there. 14 And Ephron answered Abraham and said, 15 My lord, hearken to me; the land is worth four hundred shekels of silver; what is that between me and you? You may bury your dead.

16 And Abraham hearkened to Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the sum of money which he had named in the presence of the Hittites, four hundred shekels of silver, legal tender with the merchants. 17 Thus the field of Ephron, which was by the side of the double cave which was before Mamre, that is, the Field of the Cave and the cave which was in it and all the trees that were in the field that were on its borders round about were made sure 18 And sold to Abraham in the presence of the Hittites and in the presence of all that went in at the gate of his city. 19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the double cave which is in the field before Mamre; the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. 20 Thus the field and the cave that is in it were deeded to Abraham for a possession of a burial ground by the Hittites.

Chapter 24

24:1 Now Abraham was old and well advanced in years; and Mar-Yah had blessed him in all things. 2 And Abraham called his eldest servant, the steward of his house, who was in charge of everything that he had; and he said to him, Put your hand under my girdle; 3 And I will make you swear by Mar-Yah, the God of heaven and the God of the earth, that you shall not take to my son a wife of the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell; 4 But that you will go to my country and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son Isaac. 5 And the servant said to him, pose the woman will not be willing to follow me to this land; must I then take your son back to the land from whence you came? 6 And Abraham said to him, Beware that you do not take my son thither again. 7 Mar-Yah God of heaven, who took me from thence, from my fatherís household and from the land of my kindred, and who spoke to me, and who made a covenant with me, saying, To your descendants will I give this land; he shall send his angel before you, and you shall take a wife to my son from there. 8 And if the woman will not be willing to follow you, then you shall be clear from this my oath; only you must not take my son there again. 9 So the servant put his hand under the girdle of Abraham his master, and swore to him concerning this matter.

10 And the servant took ten camels of the camels of his master, and departed, carrying with him all kinds of choice things of his master; and he arose, and went to Aram-nahrin (Mesopotamia), to the city of Nahor. 11 And he made his camels to kneel down outside the city by a well of water in the evening, the very time when women go out to draw water. 12 And he prayed, saying, O Mar-Yah God of my master Abraham, prosper my journey, and show kindness to my master Abraham. 13 Behold, I stand here by the well of water; and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water. 14 Let it come to pass that the damsel to whom I shall say, Let down your pitcher, that I may drink; and she shall say to me, Drink, and I will water your camels also; let the same be she that thou hast selected for thy servant Isaac; and by this token shall I know that thou hast shown kindness and faithfulness to my master. 15 And it came to pass, before he had finished speaking, that, behold, Rebekah came out, who was born to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abrahamís brother, with her pitcher on her shoulder. 16 And the damsel was very beautiful to look upon, a virgin whom no man had known; and she went down to the well and filled her pitcher and came up. 17 And the servant ran to meet her and said, Let me drink a little water from your pitcher. 18 And she said, Drink, my lord; and she hastened and let down the pitcher upon her hands and gave him a drink. 19 And when she had finished giving him a drink, she said, I will draw water for your camels also, until they are all watered. 20 So she hastened and emptied her pitcher into the trough and ran again to the well to draw water, and she drew water for all his camels. 21 And as the man watered his camels he scrutinized her, and waited to know whether Mar-Yah had made his journey prosperous or not. 22 And it came to pass, when the camels were through drinking, the man took golden earrings weighing a shekel and two bracelets for her wrists weighing ten shekels of gold, 23 And said to her, Whose daughter are you? tell me, is there room in your fatherís house for us to lodge? 24 And she said to him, I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor. 25 And she said moreover to him, We have plenty of straw and hay, and room to lodge in. 26 And the man knelt on the ground and worshipped Mar-Yah. 27 And he said, Blessed be Mar-Yah God of my master Abraham, who has not withheld his grace and his truth from my master; while I was on the road, Mar-Yah led me to the house of my masterís brother, to take his brotherís daughter to his son. 28 Then the damsel ran, and related these things to her fatherís household.

29 And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban; so Laban ran out to the man, to the well. 30 And it came to pass, when he saw the earrings and the bracelets on his sisterís hands and when he heard the words of Rebekah his sister, saying, Thus spoke the man to me, he came to the man; and, behold, he was standing by the camels at the well. 31 And he said to him, Come in, you blessed of Mar-Yah; why do you stand in the street? For I have prepared the house and a place for the camels. 32 So the man came into the house and ungirded the camels and gave straw and hay for the camels, and was given water to wash his feet and the feet of the men who were with him. 33 And there was set food before them to eat; but Abrahamís steward said, I will not eat until I have told my errand. And they said, Speak on. 34 And he said, I am Abrahamís servant. 35 And Mar-Yah has blessed my master greatly, so that he has become great; and he has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, menservants and maidservants, and camels and asses. 36 And Sarah my masterís wife bore a son to my master when she was old; and to him he has given all that he has. 37 And my master made me swear, saying, You must not take a wife to my son of the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell; 38 But you shall go to my fatherís house and to my kindred, and take a wife to my son. 39 And I said to my master, pose the woman will be unwilling to follow me? 40 And he said to me, Mar-Yah before whom I worship will send his angel with you, and prosper your way; and you shall take a wife for my son of my kindred and of my fatherís house; 41 Then you shall be clear from my oath, when you go to my kindred; and if they do not give you a bride, you shall be clear from my oath. 42 And I came today to the well, and said, O Mar-Yah God of my master Abraham, if now thou do prosper my mission for which I came, 43 Behold, I am standing by the well of water, and it shall come to pass that when the damsel comes forth to draw water, and I say to her, Let me drink a little water from your pitcher, 44 And she say to me, Drink, and I will also draw for your camels, let the same be the woman whom Mar-Yah has appointed for my masterís son. 45 And before I was through speaking in my heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down to the fountain, and drew water; and I said to her, Let me drink a little water from your pitcher. 46 And she hastened, and let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and said, Drink, and I will water your camels also; so I drank, and she watered my camels also. 47 Then I asked her, and said, Whose daughter are you? And she said, The daughter of Bethuel, the son of Nahor, whom Milcah bore to him; and I put the earrings on her ears and the bracelets on her hands. 48 And I knelt and worshipped Mar-Yah, and blessed Mar-Yah God of my master Abraham, who had led me in the right way to the house of my masterís brother to take my masterís brotherís daughter to his son. 49 And now if you will deal kindly and truly with my master, tell me; and if not, tell me; so that I may know what to do. 50 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, The thing proceeded from Mar-Yah; we cannot say anything to you good or bad. 51 Behold, Rebekah is before you; take her and go, and let her become the wife of your masterís son, as Mar-Yah has spoken. 52 And it came to pass that, when Abrahamís servant heard their words, he worshipped Mar-Yah, bowing himself to the earth. 53 And the servant brought forth jewels of gold and jewels of silver and raiment, and gave them to Rebekah; he also gave gifts to her brother and to her mother.

54 And he and the men who were with him ate and drank, and spent the night there; and the servant rose up in the morning, and said to them, Send me away to my master. 55 And her brother and her mother said to him, Let the damsel stay with us a month, or at least a few days; and then she shall go. 56 And he said to them, Do not delay me, seeing Mar-Yah has prospered my errand; send me away that I may go to my master. 57 And they said, We will call the damsel, and ask her. 58 So they called Rebekah, and said to her, Will you go with this man? And she said, I will go. 59 And they sent away Rebekah their sister and her nurse and Abrahamís servant and his men. 60 And they blessed Rebekah their sister, and said to her, You are our sister, be the mother of thousands and of millions, and let your descendants inherit the lands of their enemies. 61 Then Rebekah arose with her maids, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man; and the servant took Rebekah and went his way.

62 And Isaac had returned from the well of Khaya-khezan; for he dwelt in the south country. 63 Now Isaac strolled in the field in the evening; and he lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold, the camels were coming. 64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she leaned over the camel, 65 And she said to the servant, Who is this man who is walking in the field to meet us? And the servant said, It is my master; therefore she took a veil and covered herself. 66 And the servant told Isaac all the things that she had done. 67 And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarahís tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his motherís death.

Study Notes for Chapter 24
The entire chapter is highly typical: (1) Abraham, type of a certain king who would make a marriage for his son (Matthew 22:2; John 6:44); (2) the unnamed servant, type of the Holy Spirit, who does not "speak of himself," but takes of the things of the Bridegroom with which to win the bride (John 16:13,14). (3) the servant, type of the Spirit as enriching the bride with the Bridegroom's gifts. (4) the servant, type of the Spirit as bringing the bride to the meeting with the Bridegroom (Acts 13:4; Acts 16:6,7). (5) Rebekah, type of the assembly of the people of God, the "called out" or seperated virgin bride of Messiah (Genesis 24:16). (6) Isaac, type of the Bridegroom, "whom not having seen," the bride loves through the testimony of the unnamed Servant. (7) Isaac, type of the Bridegroom who goes out to meet and receive His bride (Genesis 24:63).

24:66 The Model Servant: (1) he does not run unsent (Genesis 24:2-9); (2) goes where he is sent (Genesis 24:4,10); (3) does nothing else; (4) is prayerful and thankful (Genesis 24:12-14,26,27); (5) is wise to win (Genesis 24:17,18,21; John 4:7). (6) speaks not of himself, but of his master's riches and Isaac's heirship (Genesis 24:22; 34-36; Acts 1:8). (7) presents the true issue, and requires clear decision (Genesis 24:49).

Chapter 25

25:1 Then again Abraham took another wife, and her name was Kenturah. 2 And she bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah. 3 And Jokshan begot Sheba and Daran. And the sons of Daran were Asshurim, Letushim, and Ammim. 4 And the sons of Midian were Ephah, Haphar, Hanoch, Abidah, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Kenturah. 5 And Abraham gave everything that he had to Isaac. 6 But to the sons of his concubine, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac, his son, eastward to the east country, while he was still alive. 7 And these are the days of the years of Abrahamís life which he lived, a hundred and seventy-five years. 8 Then Abraham became sick, and died in a good old age, an old man satisfied with his days; and was gathered to his people. 9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the double cave, (Machpelah) which is in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; 10 The field which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth, as a possession for a burial ground. There was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife.

11 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the well of Khaya-khezan (The Well of The Living One who saw me). 12 Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abrahamís son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarahís maid, bore to Abraham; 13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the first-born of Ishmael, Nebioth, and Kedar, Arbal, and Mibsam, 14 Mishma, Romah, Massa, 15 Hadar, Tema, Nator, Naphish, and Kedem. 16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names by their villages and by their sheepfolds, twelve princes according to their nations. 17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred and thirty-seven years; and he became sick and died; and was gathered to his people. 18 And they dwelt from Havilah as far as Shud, which extends from the border of Egypt to the gateway of Assyria; he dwelt adjacent to the lands of all his brethren.

19 These are the generations of Isaac, Abrahamís son: Abraham begot Isaac; 20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Padan-aram, the sister of Laban, the Aramean (Syrian). 21 And Isaac prayed before Mar-Yah for his wife, because she was barren; and Mar-Yah answered him, and Rebekah his wife conceived. 22 And the children struggled together within her womb; and she said, If it is to be like this, why do I live? So she went to enquire of Mar-Yah. 23 And Mar-Yah said to her, Two peoples are in your womb, and two nations shall be separated from your body; and the one nation shall be stronger than the other nation; and the elder shall serve the younger. 24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. 25 And the first came out red, all covered with ringlets of hair; and they called his name Esau. 26 And after him his brother came forth, and his hand held Esauís heel; and his name was called Jacob; and Isaac was sixty years old when Rebekah bore them. 27 And the boys grew up; and Esau became an expert hunter, a man of outdoor life; but Jacob was a simple man, living in a tent. 28 And Isaac was fond of Esau, because he ate of Esauís game; but Rebekah was fond of Jacob.

29 And Jacob cooked pottage, and behold, his brother Esau came in from the field, and he was very hungry; 30 And Esau said to Jacob, Give me some of that pottage, for I am famished; that is why he was called Edom. 31 And Jacob said, Sell me this day your birthright. 32 And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point of death; and what profit shall a birthright be to me? 33 And Jacob said to him, Swear to me this day; and he swore to him; and he sold his birthright to Jacob. 34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage; and he ate, and drank, and rose up and went his way; thus Esau despised his birthright.

Study Notes for Chapter 25
25:1 Sarah. As Sarah stands for "the mother of us all," i.e. of those who, by grace, are one with the true Son of promise, of whom Isaac was the type (John 3:6-8; Hebrews 2:11-13) and joint heirs of His wealth (Hebrews 1:2) so Keturah (wedded after the full blessing of Isaac) and her children by Abraham may well stand for the fertility of Israel the natural seed, the wife of Mar-Yah (Hosea 2:1-23) after the future national restoration under the Israelite's covenant.

25:25 Esau stands for the mere man of the earth. (Hebrews 12:16,17). In many respects a nobler man, naturally, than Jacob, he was destitute of faith, and despised the birthright because it was a spiritual thing, of value only as there was faith to apprehend it.

25:31 The "birthright" had three elements: (1) Until the establishment of the Aaronic priesthood the head of the family exercised priestly rights. (2) The Abrahamic family held the Edenic promise of the Satan-Bruiser (Genesis 3:15). — Abel, Seth, Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Esau. (3) Esau, as the firstborn, was in the direct line of the Abrahamic promise of the Earth-Blesser (Genesis 12:3). For all that was revealed, in Esau might have fulfilled those two great Messianic promises. This birthright Esau sold for a momentary fleshly gratification. Jacob's conception of the birthright at that time was, doubtless, carnal and inadequate, but his desire for it evidenced true faith.

Chapter 26

26:1 And there was a famine in the land, besides the first famine that was in the days of Abraham. And Isaac went to Gadar, to Abimeleck king of the Philistines. 2 And Mar-Yah appeared to him, and said, Do not go down to Egypt; dwell in the land of which I shall tell you; 3 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with you and will bless you; for to you and to your descendants I will give all these kingdoms, and I will perform the oath which I swore to Abraham your father; 4 And I will make your descendants to multiply as the stars of heaven, and will give to your descendants all these lands; and by your descendants shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; 5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.

6 And Isaac dwelt in Gadar; 7 And the men of the place asked him concerning his wife; and he said, She is my sister; for he was afraid to say, She is my wife; lest the men of the place should kill him on account of Rebekah, because she was fair to look upon. 8 And it came to pass when he had been there a long time that Abimeleck king of the Philistines looked out of a window and saw Isaac fondling Rebekah his wife. 9 So Abimeleck called Isaac, and said, Behold, she is your wife; how then did you say, She is my sister? And Isaac said to him, Because I said, Lest I may die on account of her. 10 And Abimeleck said to him, What is this thing that you have done to us? One of the people might easily have lain with your wife, and you would have brought sin upon us. 11 And Abimeleck charged all the people, saying, Whoever harms this man or his wife shall surely be put to death.

12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and received in the same year a hundredfold; and Mar-Yah blessed him. 13 And the man became great, and went forward and grew until he became very great; 14 And he had possessions of flocks and possessions of herds and much wealth, so that the Philistines envied him. 15 For all the wells which his fatherís servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had polluted them and filled them with earth. 16 And Abimeleck said to Isaac, Go away from among us; for you are much mightier than we. 17 So Isaac departed from thence, and encamped in the valley of Gadar, and dwelt there. 18 And Isaac digged again the wells of water which had been dug by the servants of his father in the days of Abraham his father; for the Philistines had polluted them after the death of Abraham; and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them. 19 And Isaacís servants dug in the valley, and found there a well of living water. 20 And the herdsmen of Gadar quarreled with Isaacís herdsmen, saying, The water is ours; and he called the name of the well Aska (difficulty); because they disputed with him. 21 And they dug another well, and they quarreled over that also; and he called the name of it Satana (the adversary). 22 Then he moved from there, and dug another well; but over that they did not quarrel; and he called the name of it Rehoboth (to enlarge); and he said, For now Mar-Yah has made room for us, and we shall multiply in the land. 23 And he went up from thence to Beer-sheba. 24 And Mar-Yah appeared to him the same night, and said, I am the God of Abraham your father; fear not, for I am with you, and I will bless you, and multiply your descendants for my servant Abrahamís sake. 25 And he built an altar there, and called upon the name of Mar-Yah, and pitched his tent there; and there Isaacís servants dug a well.

26 Then Abimeleck went to him from Gadar, and Ahuzzath one of his friends, and Phichol the general of his army. 27 And Isaac said to them, Why have you come to me, seeing that you hate me, and have sent me away from you? 28 And they said, We saw certainly that Mar-Yah is with you; so we said, Let there be now an oath between us and you, and let us make a covenant with you, 29 That you will do us no evil, just as we have not hurt you, and as we have done nothing but good to you, and have sent you away in peace; you are now the blessed of Mar-Yah. 30 And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink. 31 And they rose up in the early morning, and took oaths one with another; and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace. 32 And it came to pass the same day that Isaacís servants came, and spoke to him concerning the well which they had dug, and said to him, We have found water. 33 And he called it Sheba; therefore the name of the town is called Beer-sheba to this day.

34 And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bismath the daughter of Elon the Hivite; 35 And they made life miserable for Isaac and Rebekah.

Study Notes for Chapter 26
26:20 The wells of Genesis have significant names, and are associated with significant events: (1) Beer-lahai-roi, the well of him that liveth and seeth me (Genesis 16:14; 24:62; 25:11). (2) Beer-sheba, the well of the oath or covenant (Genesis 21:15-33; Genesis 22:19; 26:23-25; 46:1-5). (3) Esek, contention (Genesis 26:20). (4) Sitnah, hatred (Genesis 26:21). Esek and Sitnah were Isaac's own attempts at well-digging. Afterward, he dwelt by the old wells of his father. (5) Rehoboth, enlargement (Genesis 26:22).

Chapter 27

27:1 And it came to pass, when Isaac was old and his eyes were dim so that he could not see, he called Esau his eldest son, and said to him, My son; and he said to him, Behold, here I am. 2 And Isaac said to him, Behold now, I am old, and I do not know the day of my death; 3 Now therefore take your weapons, your sword and your bow, and go out into the field and hunt game; 4 And make me stewed meat, such as I like, and bring it to me, that I may eat, that my soul may bless you before I die. 5 And Rebekah heard when Isaac spoke to Esau his son. So Esau went to the field to hunt game and to bring it.

6 Then Rebekah said to Jacob her son, Behold, I heard your father say to Esau your brother, 7 Bring me game, and make me stewed meat, that I may eat and bless you in the presence of Mar-Yah before I die. 8 Now therefore, my son, listen to me according to that which I command you. 9 Go now to the flock, and bring me from there two kids of the goats; and I will make from them stew for your father, such as he likes; 10 And you shall bring it to your father, that he may eat, and that he may bless you in the presence of Mar-Yah before his death. 11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man and I am a smooth man; 12 Perhaps my father will feel me, and I shall seem to him as a mocker; and I Shall bring a curse upon myself, and not a blessing. 13 And his mother said to him, Let your curses be upon me, my son; only listen to me, and go and fetch them to me. 14 So he went and picked them up, and brought them to his mother; and his mother made a stew, such as his father liked. 15 And Rebekah took the best clothes of her elder son Esau, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son; 16 And she put the skins of the kids of the goats upon his hands, and upon the back of his neck; 17 And she gave the stew and the bread which she had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob.

18 And he brought them in to his father, and said, My father; and he said, Here am I. Then he said, Who are you, my son? 19 And Jacob said to his father, I am Esau, your first-born; I have done as you told me; now arise and sit up and eat of my game, that your soul may bless me. 20 And Isaac said to his son, How is it that you have found it so quickly, my son? And he said, Because Mar-Yah your God brought it my way. 21 Then Isaac said to Jacob his son, Come near me, that I may feel you, my son, to know whether you are my son Esau or not. 22 And Jacob drew near to Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacobís voice, but the hands are Esauís. 23 But he did not recognize him, because his hands were hairy, like his brother Esauís hands; so he blessed him. 24 And he said, Are you my very son Esau? And Jacob said, I am. 25 And he said, Bring the stew near to me, and I will eat of my sonís game, that my soul may bless you. And he brought it near to him, and he did eat; and he brought him wine, and he drank. 26 And his father Isaac said to him, Come near now, and kiss me, my son; so he drew near and kissed him; 27 And he came near, and kissed him; and he smelled the smell of his garments, and blessed him, and said, See, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field which Mar-Yah has blessed; 28 Therefore may God give you of the dew of heaven and the richness of the earth, and the abundance of wheat and wine; 29 Let people serve you, and nations bow down to you; be a prince over your brethren, and let your motherís sons bow down to you; cursed be they who curse you, and blessed be they who bless you.

30 And it came to pass when Isaac had finished blessing Jacob and Jacob had gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, behold, Esau his brother came in from his hunting. 31 And he also made stew, and brought it to his father, and said to his father, Let my father arise, and eat of his sonís game, that your soul may bless me. 32 And Isaac his father said to him, Who are you? And he said, I am your son, your first-born, Esau. 33 And Isaac was greatly alarmed, and said, Who was it then that hunted game and brought it to me? I have eaten of everything before you came, and I have blessed him, yea, and he shall be blessed. 34 And when Esau heard the words of his father, he cried out bitterly, and said to his father, Bless me, even me also, O my father. 35 But his father said, Your brother came with deceit, and has already received your blessing. 36 And Esau said, Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has acted treacherously toward me twice: he took away my birthright; and, behold, now he has taken away my blessing. And Esau said to his father, Have you not reserved a blessing for me? 37 And Isaac answered and said to Esau, Behold, I have made him a prince over you, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants; and with wheat and wine have I sustained him; and what shall I do now for you, my son? 38 And Esau said to his father, Have you only one blessing, my father? Bless me, even me also, O my father. And Esau lifted up his voice and wept. 39 And Isaac his father answered and said to him, Behold, your dwelling shall be in the fertile places of the earth, and the dew of heaven shall fall upon you from above; 40 And by your sword you shall live, and you shall serve your brother; but if you shall repent, his yoke shall be removed from off your neck.

41 And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessings with which his father had blessed him; and Esau said in his heart, After the days of mourning for my father are over, then I will slay my brother Jacob. 42 And the words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah; so she sent and called her younger son Jacob, and said to him, Behold, your brother Esau is threatening to kill you. 43 Now therefore, my son, hearken to me; and arise, and go to Laban my brother, to Haran; 44 And stay there a few days, until your brotherís fury is spent; 45 Until your brotherís anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you have done to him; then I will send messengers, and bring you back from there; lest I be deprived also of both of you in one day. 46 Then Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth; if Jacob takes a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good will my life be to me?

Study Notes for Chapter 27
27:38 Esau wept because of a lost advantage, but "found no way to change his mind, though he sought it carefully with tears" (Hebrews 12:17) so far may regret or remorse be from true repentance.

Chapter 28

28:1 Then Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said to him, You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. 2 Arise, go to Padan-aram, to the house of Bethuel your motherís father; and take for yourself a wife from there of the daughters of Laban your motherís brother. 3 May God Almighty bless you and make you fruitful and multiply you, that you may become a multitude of peoples; 4 And give the blessings of Abraham to you and to your descendants with you, that you may inherit the land in which you dwell, which God gave to Abraham. 5 And Isaac sent away Jacob; and he went to Padan-aram, to Laban, the son of Bethuel, the Aramean, the brother of Rebekah, Jacobís and Esauís mother.

6 When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed his brother Jacob and sent him away to Padan-aram to take for himself a wife from there, and that as he blessed him, he charged him, saying, You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan; 7 And Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and went to Padan-aram; 8 And Esau saw that Isaac his father despised the daughters of Canaan; 9 Then Esau went to Ishmael, Abrahamís son, and took Bismath, the daughter of Ishmael, Abrahamís son, the sister of Nebioth, to be his wife, in addition to his other wives.

10 And Jacob went out from Beersheba, on his way to Haran. 11 And he arrived at a certain place, and spent the night there, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of the place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. 12 And he dreamed, and behold a ladder was set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 13 And, behold, Mar-Yah stood above it and said, I am Mar-Yah God of Abraham your father, and the God of Isaac; the land whereon you are lying, I will give to you and to your descendants; 14 And your descendants shall be as numerous as the dust of the earth, and you shall spread abroad to the east and to the west and to the north and to the south; and in you and through your descendants shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 15 And, behold, I am with you, and will keep you wherever you go, and will bring you back to this land; for I will not leave you until I have done the thing of which I have spoken to you.

16 And Jacob awoke from his sleep, and he said, Surely Mar-Yah is in this place; and I did not know it. 17 And Jacob was exceedingly fearful, and he said, How sacred is this place today! This is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. 18 And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone which he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil on the top of it. 19 Then Jacob called the name of that place Beth-el (the house of God); but at the first the name of that place was called Luz. 20 And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me and will protect me in this way that I go, and will give me food to eat and clothing to wear 21 So that I may return to my fatherís house in peace, then Mar-Yah shall be my God; 22 And this stone which I have set up for a pillar shall be Godís house and of all that thou shalt give me I will give the tenth to thee.

Study Notes for Chapter 28
28:10 Bethel becomes, because of Jacob's vision there, one of the significant places of Scripture. To the believer it stands for a realisation, however imperfect, of the heavenly and spiritual contents of faith. Dispensationally, the scene speaks of Israel the nation, cast out of the Land of Promise because of evil-doing there, but holding the promise of restoration and blessing (Genesis 28:15; Deuteronomy 30:1-10). To "an Israelite indeed" Messiah speaks of Jacob's vision as to be fulfilled in the Son of man (Genesis 28:12; John 1:47-51).

Chapter 29

29:1 Then Jacob hastened on his journey, and came to the land of the people of the east. 2 And he looked, and beheld a well in the field, and, lo, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it; for out of that well they watered the flocks and a large stone was upon the wellís mouth. 3 And all the flocks were gathered there; and the shepherds rolled the stone from the wellís mouth, and watered the sheep, and then put the stone back in its place upon the wellís mouth. 4 And Jacob said to them, My brethren, where do you come from? And they said, We are from Haran. 5 And he said to them, Do you know Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We do know him. 6 And he said to them, Is he well? And they said, He is well; and, behold, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep. 7 And Jacob said, Lo, the sun is still high, it is not yet time that the cattle should be gathered together; water the sheep, and go and feed them. 8 And they said, We cannot until all the flocks are gathered together and the shepherds roll the stone from the wellís mouth; then we water the sheep.

9 gland while he was still conversing with them, Rachel came with her fatherís sheep; for she was a shepherdess. 10 And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his motherís brother and the sheep of Laban his motherís brother, that Jacob drew near and rolled the stone from the wellís mouth and watered the sheep of Laban his motherís brother. 11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. 12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her fatherís kinsman and that he was Rebekahís son; and she ran and told her father. 13 And it came to pass when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sisterís son, he ran to meet him and embraced him and kissed him and brought him to his house. And Jacob related to Laban all these things. 14 And Laban said to him, Surely you are my bone and my flesh. And t he stayed with him for a month.

15 And Laban said to Jacob, Because you are my kinsman, should you therefore work for me for nothing? Tell me, what shall your wages be? 16 And Laban had two daughters: the name of the older was Leah, and the name of the younger Rachel. 17 And Leah had attractive eyes; but Rachel was beautiful and well favored. 18 And Jacob loved Rachel; and he said, I will serve you seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter. 19 And Laban said to him, It is better that I give her to you than that I should give her to another man; abide with me. 20 Thus Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed to him but a few days because he was in love with her. 21 And Jacob said to Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. 22 And so Laban gathered together all the men of the place and made a feast. 23 And it came to pass in the evening, he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and Jacob went in unto her. 24 And Laban gave Zilpah his maid to his daughter Leah for a servant. 25 And it came to pass in the morning, behold, it was Leah; and Jacob said to Laban, What is this thing that you have done to me? Did not I serve with you for Rachel? Why then have you deceived me? 26 Then Laban said to Jacob, It is not so done in our country, to give the younger in marriage before the elder. 27 Finish the wedding feast for this one, and then I will give you the other also for the service which you shall serve with me yet another seven years. 28 And Jacob did so, and finished her wedding feast; and Laban gave him his daughter Rachel to wife. 29 And Laban gave Bilhah his maid to Rachel his daughter to be her maid. 30 And he went in unto Rachel also, and he loved Rachel also more than Leah, and served with Laban another seven years.

31 And when Mar-Yah saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb; but Rachel was barren. 32 And Leah conceived, and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben; for she said, Because Mar-Yah has seen my affliction, now therefore my husband will love me. 33 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and said, Because Mar-Yah has heard that I am hated, he has therefore given me this son also; so she called his name Simeon. 34 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and said, Now this time my husband will surely love me, because I have born him three sons therefore she called his name Levi. 35 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she said, This time I will praise Mar-Yah; therefore she called his name Judah; and then she ceased bearing.

Study Notes for Chapter 29
29:1 Jacob at Haran becomes a sterling illustration, if not type, of the nation descended from him in its present long dispersion. Like Israel, he was: (1) Out of the place of blessing (Genesis 26:3);. (2) without an altar (Hosea 3:4,5); (3) gained an evil name (Genesis 31:1); (4) but was under the covenant care of Mar-Yah (Genesis 28:13,14); (5) and was ultimately brought back (Genesis 31:3; 35:1-4; Ezekiel 37:21-23). The personal lesson is obvious: while Jacob is not forsaken, he is permitted to reap the shame and sorrow of his self-chosen way.

Chapter 30

30:1 And when Rachel saw that she was not bearing children to Jacob, she envied her sister; and said to Jacob, Give me children, or else I die. 2 And Jacobís anger was kindled against Rachel; and he said to her, Am I in the place of God, that I have prevented you from having a child? 3 Then she said to him, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may also be comforted by her. 4 And she gave him her maid Bilhah to wife; and Jacob went in unto her. 5 And Bilhah conceived, and bore Jacob a son. 6 And Rachel said, God has judged me, and has also heard my voice, and has given me a son; therefore she called his name Dan. 7 And Bilhah, Rachelís maid, conceived again, and bore Jacob a second son. 8 And Rachel said, I have besought Mar-Yah, and pleaded with my sister, and I have attained my desire; and she called his name Naphtali. 9 When Leah saw that she had ceased bearing children, she took her maid Zilpah, and gave her to Jacob to wife. 10 And Zilpah, Leahís maid, bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, My fortune has come; so she called his name Gad. 12 And Zilpah, Leahís maid, bore Jacob a second son. 13 And Leah said, The girls will sing my praise, so she called his name Asher.

14 And Reuben went at the time of the wheat harvest and found mandrakes in the field and brought them; to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, Give me some of your sonís mandrakes. 15 But Leah said to her, Is it not enough for you that you have taken away my husband? And would you take away my sows mandrakes also? And Rachel said, He may lie with you tonight for your sonís mandrakes. 16 And when Jacob came home from the field in the evening, Leah went out to meet him, and said, You must come in unto me; for surely I have hired you with my sonís mandrakes. And he lay with her that night. 17 And God hearkened to Leah, and she conceived, and bore Jacob the fifth son. 18 And Leah said, God has rewarded me, because I have given my maid to my husband; so she called his name Issachar. 19 And Leah conceived again, and bore Jacob the sixth son. 20 And Leah said, God has enriched me exceedingly; now my husband will surely have more affection for me, because I have borne him six sons; so she called his name Zebulun. 21 And afterwards she bore a daughter, and called her name Dinah. 22 And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her and opened her womb. 23 And she conceived, and bore a son; and said, God has taken away my reproach; 24 And she called his name Joseph; and said, Mar-Yah shall add to me another son.

25 And it came to pass, when Rachel had borne Joseph, that Jacob said to Laban, Send me away, that I may go to my own place, and to my land. 26 Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served you, and let me go; for you know the service which I have rendered you. 27 And Laban said to Jacob, If I have found favor in your eyes, I have proven by experience that Mar-Yah has blessed me for your sake. 28 Then he said, Specify your wages, and I will give them. 29 And Jacob said to him, You yourself know the service which I have given you, and how your cattle have prospered with me. 30 For it was little which you had before I came, and now it has increased abundantly; and Mar-Yah has blessed you for my sake; and now what shall I do in order to provide for my own household also? 31 And Laban said, What shall I give you? And Jacob said, You shall not give me anything; if you will do for me the thing which I will tell you, I will go back to feed and keep your flock. 32 I will pass through all your flock today, and select for myself from it every speckled and spotted lamb, and every brown lamb, and the spotted and speckled among the goats; and of such shall be my wages. 33 Just as my innocence is evident today, so it will be in the future when my wages are brought before your presence; every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats and brown among the white sheep, that shall be counted stolen by me. 34 Laban said to him, Yes, let it be according to your word. 35 And he removed that day the he goats that were speckled and spotted, and all the she goats that were speckled and spotted, and every one that had some white on it, and all the brown among the white sheep, and entrusted them to his sons. 36 And he set three days journey between himself and Jacob; and Jacob fed the rest of Labanís flocks.

37 And Jacob took some fresh white rods of almond and poplar trees; and peeled white streaks in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods. 38 And he set the rods which he had peeled before the flocks in the running water, in the watering troughs where the flocks came to drink; and they conceived when they came to drink. 39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth lambs that were speckled and spotted. 40 And Jacob separated the lambs, and set the faces of the flocks toward the speckled and spotted, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and did not mix them with Labanís flock. 41 And it came to pass, whenever the stronger of the flock did conceive, Jacob laid the rods in front of the sheep in the troughs, that they might conceive by the means of the rods. 42 But when the sheep were feeble, he did not put the rods in; so the feebler were Labanís and the stronger Jacobís. 43 And the man grew exceedingly rich, and had large flocks, menservants, maidservants, and she asses, camels, and he asses.

Chapter 31

31:1 And Jacob heard the words of Labanís sons, saying, Jacob has taken away all that was our fatherís; and of that which was our fatherís has he acquired all of this wealth. 2 And Jacob saw that Labanís countenance toward him was not as it had been yesterday and the day before. 3 And Mar-Yah said to Jacob, Return to the land of your fathers, and to your kindred; and I will be with you. 4 So Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock, 5 And said to them, I see that your fatherís countenance toward me is not as it has been yesterday and the day before; but the God of my father has been with me. 6 And you know that I have worked for your father with all my strength. 7 And yet your father has deceived me, and changed my wages ten times; but God has not permitted him to hurt me. 8 If he said thus, The speckled shall be your wages, then all the flock bore speckled; and if he said thus, The spotted shall be your wages; then all the flock bore spotted. 9 Thus God has selected some of your fatherís cattle, and given them to me. 10 And it came to pass at the time when the sheep conceive, I lifted up my eyes and saw in a dream, and, behold, the rams that leaped upon the sheep were speckled, spotted, and striped. 11 And the angel of God said to me in a dream, Jacob; and I said, Here am I. 12 Then he said, Lift up now your eyes, and see; all the rams that leap upon the sheep are speckled, spotted, and ringstreaked; for I have seen all that Laban has done to you. 13 I am the God of Beth-el, the place where you anointed a pillar to me, and where you vowed a vow to me; now arise, get out from this land, and return to the land of your kindred. 14 And Rachel and Leah answered and said to him, We have no portion or inheritance in our fatherís house. 15 Behold, we are counted by him as strangers, for he has sold us, and has squandered also our money. 16 For all the riches which God has selected from our father belong to us and our children; now then, whatever God has said to you, do it.

17 Then Jacob rose up and set his sons and his wives on camels; 18 And he carried away all his cattle and all his wealth which he had gained in Padan-aram, to go to Isaac his father in the land of Canaan. 19 Now Laban went to shear his sheep; and Rachel stole the images that belonged to her father. 20 And Jacob deceived Laban, the Aramean, in that he did not tell him that he was going. 21 So he fled with all that he had; and he rose up, and crossed the river, and set his face toward mount Gilead. 22 And it was told Laban on the third day that Jacob had fled. 23 And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him seven days journey; and they overtook him on mount Gilead. 24 And God came to Laban, the Aramean, in a dream by night, and said to him, Take heed that you speak not to Jacob either good or bad.

25 Then Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent on the mount; and Laban with his brethren encamped on mount Gilead. 26 And Laban said to Jacob, What have I clone to you, that you have deceived me and carried away my daughters as though they were captives taken with the sword? 27 Why did you flee secretly, and deceive me; and did not tell me, for I would have sent you away with joy and songs, and with harp and tambourine? 28 And you did not permit me to give a farewell kiss to my sons and my daughters? Now you have done foolishly in so doing. 29 I could have done you harm, but the God of your fathers said to me last evening, Take heed that you speak not to Jacob either good or bad. 30 And now you are on your way, because you longed for your fatherís house; yet why did you steal my gods? 31 And Jacob answered and said to Laban. Because I was afraid; for I said, Perhaps you would take your daughters from me by force. 32 With whomsoever you find your gods, he shall not live; moreover, in the presence of our brethren point out whatever I have that belongs to you, and take it for yourself. For Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them. 33 And Laban went into Jacobís tent and into Leahís tent and into the tent of the two maidservants; but he did not find the gods. So he went out of Leahís tent into Rachelís tent. 34 Now Rachel had taken the images, and put them in the camelís saddle bag, and sat upon them. And Laban had searched all the tent, but did not find them. 35 And Rachel said to her father, Let it not displease my lord that I cannot rise up before you; for I am with child. Nevertheless he searched, but did not find the images.

36 And Jacob was displeased, and argued with Laban; and Jacob answered and said to Laban, What is my trespass? and what is my fault, that you have hotly pursued after me? 37 Behold you have searched all my baggage, and what have you found of all your household articles? Put it here before my brethren and your brethren, that they may judge between us both. 38 Behold, I have been with you for the past twenty years; your ewes and your she goats have not cast their young, and I have not eaten of the rams of your flock. 39 That which was torn by wild beasts I never brought to you; I bore the loss of it; of my hand you did require it; likewise that which was stolen by the day or by the night. 40 Thus by day I was scorched by the heat, and at night suffered from cold; and my sleep departed from my eyes. 41 Behold, I have been twenty years in your house; I served you fourteen years for your two daughters, and six years for your flock; and you have changed my wages ten times. 42 And if it had not been for the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and your regard for Isaac, which have been on my side, surely you would have sent me away now empty. God saw my toil and the labor of my hands, and rebuked you last evening.

43 Then Laban answered and said to Jacob, These daughters are my daughters, and these children are my children, and the flocks are my flocks. and all that you see is mine; and what can I do this day for these my daughters, or for their children whom they have borne? 44 Now therefore come then, let us make a covenant, I and you; and let it be for a witness between me and you. 45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up for a pillar. 46 And Jacob said to his brethren. Gather stones; and they took stones, and made a heap; and they did eat there upon the heap. 47 And Laban called it Jegar-sahadutha (the Pillar of Witness); but Jacob called it Galead (Gilead). 48 And Laban said, This heap is a witness between me and you this day. Therefore he called its name Galead. 49 And a watchtower; for he said. Let Mar-Yah watch between me and you, because we are parting one from another. 50 If you despise my daughters, or if you shall take other wives besides my daughters, now no man is with us; see, God only is witness between me and you. 51 And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have set between me and you; 52 This heap is a witness, and this pillar is a witness, that I will not pass over this pillar against you, and that you also shall not pass over this pillar against me or this heap for harm. 53 The God of Abraham and the God of Nahor and the God of our forefathers judge between us. And Jacob swore by the reverence of his father Isaac. 54 Then Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and invited his brethren to eat bread; and they did eat food, and spent the night on the mountain. 55 And early in the morning Laban rose up and kissed his grandsons and his daughters, and blessed them; then Laban returned and went to his country.

Chapter 32

32:1 And Jacob also went on his journey, and the angels of God met him. 2 And when Jacob saw them, he said, This is Godís host; so he called the name of that place Mahanaim.

3 And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother to the land of Seir, the country of Edom. 4 And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall you speak to my lord Esau; Thus says your servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed there until now; 5 I have oxen, asses, flocks, menservants, and maidservants; and I have sent to tell my lord, that I may find mercy in your sight. 6 And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to your brother Esau, and behold he also is coming to meet you, and four hundred men with him. 7 Then Jacob was afraid and greatly distressed; and he divided the people that were with him, and the flocks and herds and camels, into two groups; 8 And Jacob said, If my brother Esau should come against one group and destroy it, then the group which is left shall escape.

9 And Jacob prayed, and said. O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, Mar-Yah who didst say to me, Return to the land of your fathers and to your kindred, and I will deal well with you; 10 I am not worthy of the least of all thy favors, and of all the truth that thou hast shown to thy servant; for alone with my staff I crossed over this Jordan; and now I have become two companies. 11 Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hands of my brother Esau; for I am afraid of him, lest he will come to smite me, and the mothers with their children. 12 And thou didst say, I will surely do you good, and make your descendants numerous as the sand of the sea which cannot be numbered for multitude.

13 And he spent that night there; and took of that which he had with him as a present for his brother Esau; 14 Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, two hundred ewes, and twenty rams, 15 Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty cows, and ten bulls, twenty she asses, and ten foals. 16 And he entrusted them to his servants, every drove by itself; and said to his servants, Pass over before me, and keep a distance between drove and drove. 17 And he commanded the leader of the first drove, and said to him, When Esau my brother meets you, and asks you, saying, Who are you? and where are you going? and whose are these that are before you? 18 Then you shall say to him, They belong to your servant Jacob; they are a present which he has sent to my lord Esau; and, behold, also he is coming behind us. 19 And so he commanded the second and the third and all who followed with the droves, saying. In this manner you shall speak to Esau, when you find him. 20 And you shall say to him, moreover, Behold, your servant Jacob also is behind us. For he said, I may appease him with the present that goes before me, and afterward I will see his face; and perhaps he will accept me. 21 So the present went over before him; and he himself lodged that night in the encampment. 22 And he rose up in the night, and took his two wives and his two maidservants and his eleven sons, and led them to the desert of Jabbok. 23 And he took them, and brought them over the brook, and then he brought across everything that he had.

24 And Jacob was left alone; and there a man wrestled with him until daybreak. 25 And when the man saw that he did not prevail against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacobís thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him. 26 And the man said to him, Let me go, for day is breaking. And he said, I will not let you go unless you bless me. 27 And he said to him, What is your name? And he said, Jacob. 28 And he said to him. Your name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel (the Prince of God); for you have proved your strength wrestling with an angel and with man, and have prevailed. 29 And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me your name. And he said, Why is it that you ask my name? And the angel blessed him there. 30 And Jacob called the name of that place Peniel; for be said, I have seen an angel face to face, and my life is preserved. 31 The sun rose upon him just as he left Peniel, and he limped because of his thigh. 32 That is why the children of Israel do not eat of the sinew of the hip, which is on the hollow of the thigh, to this day; because the angel touched the hollow of Jacobís thigh on the sinew of the thigh.

Study Notes for Chapter 32
32:8 Both names are applied to the nation descended from Jacob. When used characteristically "Jacob" is the name for the natural posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; "Israel" for the spiritual part of the nation. (See Isaiah 9:8) The "word" was sent to all the people, "Jacob," but it "lighted upon Israel," i.e. was comprehended by the spiritual part of the people.

Chapter 33

33:1 And Jacob raised his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau was coming, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two maids. 2 Then he brought the maids and their children to the front, and Leah and her children next, and kept Rachel and Joseph in the rear. 3 And he himself went on before them, and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother. 4 And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck and kissed him; and they wept.

5 Then Esau raised his eyes and saw the women and the children, and said, Where did you get these? And Jacob said to him, They are the children whom God has graciously given your servant. 6 Then the maids drew near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves. 7 And Leah also with her children drew near, and bowed themselves; and afterwards came Rachel and Joseph who also drew near, and bowed themselves. 8 And Esau said to Jacob, Where did you get all this company which I met? And Jacob said to him, Because I have found favor in the sight of my lord. 9 Then Esau said to him, I have plenty, my brother; keep what you have to yourself. 10 But Jacob said to him, If now I have found mercy in your sight, then receive my present from my hands; because now I have seen your face, as I saw the face of an angel, and you were pleased with me. 11 Now accept my blessings that I have brought to you; because God has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough. And Jacob urged him, and he did accept them. 12 Then Esau said to him, Let us depart, and go, and I will go before you. 13 But Jacob said. My lord knows that the children are too young, and that the flocks and herds with young are with me; and if I should overdrive them one day, all the flock will die. 14 Let my lord pass before his servant, and I will travel slowly, according to the pace of the cattle which are before me and according to the pace of the children, until I come to my lord to Seir. 15 And Esau said to him, Let me leave with you some of the men that are with me. But Jacob said, What need have I for them? Let me find mercy in the sight of my lord.

16 So Esau returned that day on his way to Seir. 17 And Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built himself a house, and made sheepfolds for his cattle; therefore he called the name of the place Succoth. 18 And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when he came forth from Padan-aram; and encamped before the city. 19 And he bought a parcel of a field from the children of Hamor, father of Shechem, for a hundred ewes. 20 And he pitched his tent there, and erected an altar, and called it El-Alaha di Israel (God, the God of Israel).

Chapter 34

34:1 And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had borne to Jacob, went out to see the native girls. 2 And when Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her and lay with her, and defiled her. 3 And his soul longed for Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the girl, and spoke kindly to the girl, and won her heart. 4 And Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, Get me this girl to wife. 5 And Jacob heard that Dinah his daughter had been defiled; now his sons were with the cattle in the field; so Jacob held his peace until they came.

6 And Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him. 7 And the sons of Jacob came from the field, and when they heard the news, they were grieved; and they were very indignant, because they had wrought folly in Israel in the disgracing of Jacobís daughter, which thing ought not to be done. 8 And Hamor spoke with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter; give her to him in marriage. 9 Intermarry with us, and give your daughters to us in marriage, and take our daughters to you, 10 And dwell with us; behold, the land is before you; dwell and trade in it and inherit in it. 11 And Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, Let me find mercy in your presence, and whatever you shall ask of me I will give. 12 Ask me as much as you wish, both dowry and gifts, and I will give you according as you shall say to me; but give me this girl to wife. 13 And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, because they had defiled Dinah their sister, 14 And they said to them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to a man who is uncircumcised; for that would be a reproach to us; 15 But on this condition will we consent to you: that you will become like us, and circumcise every male as we are circumcised; 16 Then we will give our daughters to you in marriage, and take your daughters to us in marriage, and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people. 17 But if you will not hearken to us, to be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and we will be gone.

18 And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem, Hamorís son. 19 And the young man did not delay to do the thing, because he was delighted with Jacobís daughter and he was honored above all the household of his father. 20 Then Hamor and Shechem his son came to the gate of their town and spoke to the men of their town, saying, 21 These men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade in it, for the land is large enough before them; let us take their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our daughters. 22 But only on this condition will the men consent to dwell with us, to become one people, when every male among us is circumcised, as they are circumcised. 23 Behold, their wealth, their possessions, and all their cattle will eventually be ours; only let us consent to their proposals, and they will dwell with us. 24 And when all the adults of the town had heard from Shechem and from his father Hamor, they circumcised every male, those that went out of the gate of his town.

25 And it came to pass on the third day, when the men were sore, two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinahís brothers, took each man his sword, and came against the town quietly, and slew every male. 26 And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechemís house, and went out. 27 Then the sons of Jacob came back to the slain, and plundered the town, because they had defiled their sister. 28 They took their sheep and their oxen and their asses and whatever was in the town and in the field. 29 And all their wealth and all their little ones; and their wives they carried captive, and plundered everything that was in the town. 30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, You have done me a great harm, for you have hurt my reputation among the inhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and I being few in numbers, they may gather themselves together against me, and attack me; I shall be destroyed, both I and my household. 31 But they said, Our sister has been treated like a harlot.

Chapter 35

35:1 And God said to Jacob, Arise, go up to Beth-el, and dwell there; and build there an altar to God, who appeared to you when you fled from the presence of your brother Esau. 2 Then Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, Put away the strange gods that are among you, and cleanse yourselves, and change your garments; 3 And let us arise and go up to Beth-el; and I will build there an altar to God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the journey that I took. 4 So they gave to Jacob all the strange gods that were in their possession, and the earrings that were in their ears; and Jacob buried them under the oak which was by Shechem. 5 And they journeyed; and the fear of God fell upon the towns that were round about them, and they did not pursue after Jacob and his sons.

6 So Jacob came to Luz, that is Beth-el, which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people that were with him. 7 And he built there an altar, and called the place Beth-el (the house of God), because there God appeared to him when he fled from the presence of his brother Esau. 8 Then Deborah Rebekahís nurse died, and she was buried below Bethel under an oak; so the name of the oak was called Betemtha dabkhatha (the oak of weeping). 9 And God appeared to Jacob again, when he came from Padan-aram, and blessed him. 10 And God said to him. Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel shall be your name; so he called his name Israel. 11 And God said to him. I am God Almighty; be fruitful and multiply: a people and a multitude of peoples shall come from you, and kings shall come out of your loins; 12 And the land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give to you, and to your descendants after you will I give the land. 13 And God went up from him in the place where he talked with him. 14 And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he had talked with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it, and he poured oil on it. 15 And Jacob called the name of the place where God spoke with him, Beth-el.

16 And they journeyed from Bethel, and continued until they came within the distance of a mile from the entrance to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labor while she was being delivered. 17 And it came to pass, when she was in hard labor, the midwife said to her, Fear not; for this one also is a son for you. 18 And it came to pass, as her soul was departing and she was dying, she called the childís name Bar-kebai (the Son of My Sorrow); but his father called him Benjamin (the Son of My Right Hand). 19 And Rachel died, and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Beth-lehem. 20 And Jacob set up a pillar upon the grave of Rachel; that is the pillar of Rachelís grave to this day.

21 And Israel journeyed, and pitched his tent beyond the tower of Gadar. 22 And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his fatherís concubine; and Israel heard of it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve: 23 The sons of Leah: Reuben, Jacobís first-born, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. 24 And the sons of Rachel: Joseph, and Benjamin. 25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachelís maid: Dan, and Naphtali. 26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leahís maid: Gad, and Asher. These are the sons of Jacob that were born to him in Padan-aram. 27 And Jacob came to his father Isaac to Mamre, to Koriath Gabarey, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had sojourned. 28 And the days of Isaac were a hundred and eighty years. 29 Then Isaac grew weak and died; and he was gathered to his people, being very old and full of days; and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him in the burial ground which his father Abraham had purchased.

Study Notes for Chapter 35
35:14 The first mention of the drink-offering. It is not mentioned among the Levitical offerings of Leviticus 1-7, though included in the instructions for sacrifice in the land (Numbers 15:5-7). It was always "poured out," never drunk, and may be considered a type of Messiah in light of Psalm 22:14 and Isaiah 53:12.

35:18 Benjamin. "Son of sorrow" (Bar-kebai) to his mother, but "son of my right hand" (Benjamin) to his father, becomes thus a double type of Messiah. As Ben-oni He was the suffering One because of whom a sword pierced His mother's heart (Luke 2:35) as Benjamin, head of the warrior tribe (Genesis 49:27) firmly joined to Judah the kingly tribe (Genesis 49:8-12; 1†Kings 12:21) he becomes a type of the victorious One. It is noteworthy that Benjamin was especially honoured among the Gentiles (Genesis 45:22). So manifold are the distinctions of Messiah that many personal types of Him are needed. Joseph is not complete, Benjamin standing only for Messiah the sorrowful One (Isaiah 53:3,4) yet have power on earth.

Chapter 36

36:1 Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom. 2 Esau took his wives from among the daughters of Canaan: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, the son of Zibeon the Hivite; 3 And Bismath, Ishmaelís daughter, sister of Nebioth. 4 And Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz; and Bismath bore Reuel; 5 And Aholibamah bore Jeush, Jaalan, and Korah; these are the sons of Esau that were born to him in the land of Canaan. 6 And Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the persons of his household, and all his cattle, and all the wealth which he had acquired in the land of Canaan; and went to the land of Seir from the presence of his brother Jacob. 7 For their wealth was too great for them to dwell together; and the land in which they sojourned could not sustain them because of their cattle. 8 Thus Esau dwelt in mount Seir; Esau is Edom.

9 And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir; 10 These are the names of Esauís sons: Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bismath the wife of Esau. 11 And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatham, and Kenaz. 12 And Timna was a concubine of Eliphaz, Esauís son; and she bore to Eliphaz Amalek. These were the sons of Adah, Esauís wife. 13 And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah; these were the sons of Bismath, Esauís wife. 14 These are the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the son of Zibeon, Esauís wife; and she bore to Esau Jeush, Jaalan, and Korah. 15 These are the chiefs of the sons of Esau, the sons of Eliphaz the first-born of Esau: chief Teman, chief Omar, chief Zepho, chief Kenaz, 16 Chief Gatham, chief Korah, and chief Amalek; these are the chiefs that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah. 17 And these are the sons of Reuel, Esauís son: chief Nahath, chief Zerah, chief Shammah, and chief Mizzah; these are the chiefs that came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bismath, Esauís wife. 18 These are the sons of Aholibamah, Esauís wife: chief Jeush, chief Jaalan, and chief Korah; these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah, Esauís wife. 19 These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these are their chiefs.

20 These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, 21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan; these are the chiefs of the Horites, the children of Seir in the land of Edom. 22 And the sons of Lotan were Hori and Heman; and Lotanís sister was Timna. 23 These are the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shapar, and Oiam. 24 And these are the sons of Zibeon: Ana and Anah; he is the Anah who discovered water in the desert while he was feeding the asses of Zibeon his father. 25 These are the children of Anah: Dishon and Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah. 26 These are the sons of Dishon: Hemran, Eshban, Ithran, and Cheran. 27 These are the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan. 28 These are the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran. 29 These are the chiefs of the Horites: chief Lotan, chief Shobal, chief Zibeon, chief Anah, 30 Chief Dishon, chief Ezer, and chief Dishan; these are the chiefs of the Horites, according to their chiefs in the land of Seir.

31 And these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel: 32 Bela, the son of Beor, reigned in Edom; and the name of his city was Dihab. 33 And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead. 34 And Jobab died, and Husham of the land of Teman reigned in his stead. 35 And Husham died, and Hadad, the son of Bedad, who smote the Midianites in the fields of Moab, reigned in his stead; and the name of his city was Gevith. 36 And Hadad died, and Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his stead. 37 And Samlah died, and Saul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his stead. 38 And Saul died, and Baal-hanan, the son of Abcor, reigned in his stead. 39 And Baal-hanan, the son of Abcor died, and Hadad reigned in his stead; and the name of his city was Pau; and his wifeís name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab. 40 And these are the names of the chiefs of Esau, according to their families, and according to their generations, by their names: chief Timnah, chief Anvah, chief Jetheth, 41 Chief Aholibamah, chief Elah, chief Pinon, 42 Chief Kenaz, chief Teman, chief Mibzar, 43 Chief Magdiel, chief Giram; these are the chiefs of the Edomites, according to their habitations in the land of their possession; Edom is Esau the father of the Edomites.

Study Notes for Chapter 36
36:1 Edom Also called "Seir" (Genesis 32:3; 36:8). The name of the country lying south of the ancient kingdom of Judah, and extending from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akaba. It includes the ruins of Petra, and is bounded on the north by Moab. Peopled by descendants of Esau (Genesis 36:1-9). Edom has a remarkable prominence in the prophetic word as (together with Moab) the scene of the final destruction of Gentile world-power in the day of Mar-Yah.

36:31 kings. It is characteristic of Scripture that the kings of Edom should be enumerated before the kings of Israel. The principle is stated in 1†Corinthians 15:46. First things are "natural," man's best, and always fail; second things are "spiritual," God's things, and succeed. Adam — Christ; Cain — Abel; Cain's posterity — Seth's posterity; Saul — David; Israel — the true assembly of God's people, etc.

Chapter 37

37:1 And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a sojourner, in the land of Canaan. 2 These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers; and the lad was reared with the sons of Zilpah, and with the sons of Bilhah, his fatherís wives; and Joseph brought an evil report of them to their father. 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his other sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he had made him a rich robe with long sleeves. 4 And when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably to him.

5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brothers; and they hated him yet the more. 6 And he said to them, Listen to this dream which I have dreamed: 7 Behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose and stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about and bowed down to my sheaf. 8 And his brothers said to him, Are you indeed going to reign over us? Or are you going to have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. 9 And he dreamed another dream, and told it to his brothers, and said, Behold, I have dreamed another dream; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars bowed down to me. 10 And when he told it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebuked him, and said to him, What is this dream that you have dreamed? Shall I and your mother and your brothers indeed come to bow down ourselves to the ground to you? 11 And his brothers envied him; but his father observed the sayings.

12 And Josephís brothers went to feed their fatherís, flock in Shechem. 13 And Israel said to Joseph, Behold, your brothers are feeding the flocks in Shechem; come, I will send you to them. And he said to him, Here am I. 14 Then his father said to him, Go, see whether it is well with your brothers and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So Jacob sent him from the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. 15 And a certain man found him while he was wandering in the field; and the man asked him, and said to him, What are you seeking? 16 And he said, I am seeking my brothers; do tell me where they are feeding their flocks. 17 And the man said, They have departed from here; for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. So Joseph went after his brothers, and found them in Dothan. 18 And they saw him from afar, and before he came near to them, they conspired against him to kill him. 19 And they said to one another, Behold, here comes the dreamer. 20 Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and throw him into one of the pits; and then we will say that a wild beast has devoured him, and we shall see what will become of his dreams. 21 And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and he said to them, Let us not kill him. 22 And Reuben said to them, Shed no blood; throw him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but do not harm him; that he might deliver him from their hands, and bring him back to his father.

23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was come to his brothers, they stripped him of the rich robe that he was wearing; 24 And they took him, and threw him into a pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. 25 And they sat down to eat bread; and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a caravan of Arabians coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing gum, balm and myrrh, and they were on their way to carry it down to Egypt. 26 And Judah said to his brothers, What profit is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? 27 Come, let us sell him to the Arabians, and let us not harm him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brothers listened to him. 28 Then some Midianite merchants passed by; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Arabians for twenty pieces of silver; and they brought him into Egypt. 29 And then Reuben returned to the pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he tore his clothes. 30 And he returned to his brothers, and said to them, Where is the boy; and as for me, where shall I go?

31 And they took Josephís robe, and killed a kid of the goats, and dipped the robe in the blood; 32 And they sent the robe with long sleeves, and they brought it to their father; and said, This we have found: know now whether it be your sonís coat or not. 33 And he recognized it, and said, It is my sonís coat; a wild beast has devoured him; my son Joseph is surely torn to pieces. 34 Then Jacob tore his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. 35 And all his sons and all his daughters made an effort to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said, I will go down to Sheol, to my son mourning. Thus his father wept for him. 36 And the Midianites sold Joseph in Egypt to Potiphar, one of Pharaohís officers, the commander of the guard.

Study Notes for Chapter 37
37:2 Joseph. While it is nowhere asserted that Joseph was a type of Messiah, the analogies are too numerous to be accidental. They are: (1) both were especial objects of a father's love (Genesis 37:3; Matthew 3:17; John 3:35; 5:20); (2) both were hated by their brethren (Genesis 37:4; John 15:25); (3) the erior claims of both were rejected by their brethren (Genesis 37:8; Matthew 21:37-39; John 15:24,25); (4) the brethren of both conspired against them to slay them (Genesis 37:18; Matthew 26:3,4); (5) Joseph was, in intent and figure, slain by his brethren, as was Messiah (Genesis 37:24; Matthew 27:35-37); (6) each became a blessing among the Gentiles, and gained a Gentile bride (Genesis 41:1-45; Acts 15:14); (7) as Joseph reconciled his brethren to himself, and afterward exalted them, so will it be with Messiah and His Jewish brethren (Genesis 45:1-15; Deuteronomy 30:1-10; Hosea 2:14-18).

Chapter 38

38:1 And it came to pass at that time that Judah went down from his brothers, and turned in to a certain Arlemite, whose name was Hirah. 2 And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain Canaanite, whose name was Shuah; and he took her, and went in unto her. 3 And she conceived, and bore a son; and he called his name Er. 4 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and he called his name Onan. 5 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and he called his name Shelah; and after she bore him she stopped bearing. 6 And Judah took a wife for Er, his first-born, whose name was Tamar. 7 And Er, Judahís first-born, was wicked in the sight of Mar-Yah; and Mar-Yah slew him. 8 And Judah said to Onan, Go in to your brotherís wife, and perform the duty of a brother-in-law to her, and raise up an offspring to your brother. 9 And Onan knew that the offspring would not be his; and it came to pass when he went in unto his brotherís wife that he spilled the semen on the ground, lest that he should raise an offspring to his brother. 10 And the thing which he did was displeasing in the sight of Mar-Yah; wherefore he slew him also. 11 Then said Judah to Tamar, his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in your fatherís house, until my son Shelah grows up; for he said. Lest he die also, as his brothers did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her fatherís house.

12 And in the course of time Shuahís daughter, the wife of Judah, died; and Judah was comforted, and went up to his sheepshearers to Timnath, he and his friend Hirah the Arlemite. 13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold your father-in-law is going up to Timnath to shear his sheep. 14 And she put off her widowís dress, and adorned herself, and covered her face with a veil, and sat down at the parting of the road to Timnath; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him to wife. 15 When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; because she had covered her face. 16 And he turned to her by the way and said to her, Come, let me come in unto you (for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law). And she said, What will you give me that you may come in unto me? 17 And he said, I will send you a kid from the flock. And she said, Will you give me a pledge until you send it? 18 And he said, What kind of a pledge shall I give you? And she said, Your ring and your robe and the staff that is in your hand. So he gave them to her, and then went in unto her, and she conceived by him. 19 And she arose and went away and took off her veil from her and put on the garments of her widowhood. 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Arlemite, to receive the pledge from the womanís hand; but he could not find her. 21 Then he asked the men of the place, saying, Where is the harlot who sat at the parting of the road? And they said, There is no harlot here. 22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place said, No harlot has been here. 23 And Judah said, Let her keep the pledge, lest I be laughed at; behold, I sent this kid, but you could not find her.

24 And it came to pass, about three months later, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar, your daughter-in-law, has played the harlot; and moreover, she is with child because of her harlotry. And Judah said, Bring her out, and let her be burned. 25 When they brought her out, she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man to whom these articles belong, I am with child; and she said, Determine whose they are, the ring, the robe, and the staff. 26 And Judah recognized them, and said, She is more righteous than I; because I did not give her in marriage to Shelah my son. And he knew her again no more. 27 And it came to pass in the time of her travail that, behold, there were twins in her womb. 28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that one of the babes put out his hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first. 29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, behold, his brother came out; and she said, What a breach has been made for you! Therefore his name was called Pharez. 30 And afterward came out his brother, who had the scarlet thread on his hand; and she called his name Zarah.

Chapter 39

39:1 And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, commander of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him from the Arabians who had brought him down there. 2 And Mar-Yah was with Joseph, and he became a prosperous man in the house of his master, the Egyptian. 3 And his master saw that Mar-Yah was with him, and that Mar-Yah made all that he did to prosper under his hands. 4 And Joseph found favor in his sight, and served him; and he made him steward of his house, and all that he had he put in his charge. 5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him steward of his house, and over all that he had, that Mar-Yah blessed the Egyptianís house for Josephís sake; and the blessing of Mar-Yah was upon all that he had both in the house and in the field. 6 And he left all that he had in Josephís charge; and he did not know what he had, except the food that he ate. And Joseph was very handsome and pleasant to look at.

7 And it came to pass after these things that his masterís wife cast her eyes upon Joseph; and she said to him, Lie with me. 8 But he refused, and said to his masterís wife, Behold, my master does not know what he has in the house, and he has put everything that he has in my charge; 9 There is no one greater in this house than I; neither has he kept back anything from me except yourself, because you are his wife; how then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God? 10 And it came to pass, as she spoke to him daily, he did not listen to her, to lie with her, or to be with her. 11 And it came to pass one day that Joseph went in to the house to do his work; and none of the men of the household were there in the house. 12 And she caught him by his garment, and said to him, Lie with me; but he left the garment in her hands, and fled, and got out to the street.

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hands, and had fled out to the street, 14 She called to the men of her household, and said to them, See, he has brought in a Hebrew servant to us to disgrace us; he came in to me to lie with me, and I cried out with a loud voice; 15 And when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried aloud, he left his garment in my hands, and fled, and got out to the street. 16 And she laid up his garment by her, until his master came home. 17 And she spoke to him according to these words, saying, The Hebrew servant whom you brought to us, came in to disgrace me; 18 But as I lifted up my voice and cried aloud, he left his garment in my hands, and fled, and got out to the street.

19 And when the master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke to him, saying, After this manner did your servant to me; his wrath was kindled. 20 And Josephís master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the kingís prisoners were confined; and he remained there in the prison. 21 But Mar-Yah was with Joseph, and showed him mercy, and gave him favor in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 22 And the keeper of the prison intrusted to Josephís care all the prisoners who were in the prison; and he was in charge of whatever they did there. 23 The keeper of the prison did not look to anything that was in Josephís charge, because Mar-Yah was with him, and whatever he did, Mar-Yah made it to prosper.

Chapter 40

40:1 And it came to pass after these things that the chief butler of the king of Egypt and the chief baker had offended their lord the king of Egypt. 2 And Pharaoh was wroth against two of his officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers. 3 And he put them into the prison in the house of the commander of the guard, in the ward where Joseph was bound. 4 And the commander of the guard charged Joseph with them, and he served them; and they remained for some time in the prison.

5 And they both dreamed, each man his own dream in the same night, each man according to the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were bound in the prison. 6 And Joseph came in to them in the morning, and saw them, and behold, they were sad. 7 So he asked Pharaohís officers who were with him in the prison of his masterís house, saying, Why do you look so sad today? 8 And they said to him, We have dreamed a dream, and there is no one to interpret it. And Joseph said to them, Behold, the interpretations belong to God; tell them to me. 9 Then the chief butler told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me; 10 And in the vine were three branches; and when it budded, its blossoms shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes; 11 And Pharaohís cup was in my hand; and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaohís cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaohís hands. 12 And Joseph said to him, This is the interpretation of your dream: The three branches are three days; 13 After three days Pharaoh shall remember you and restore you to your position; and you shall give Pharaohís cup into his hand, as you did before when you were his butler. 14 But remember me when it shall be well with you, and do me a favor and justice, and make mention of me in the presence of Pharaoh, and bring me out of this prison house; 15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews; and here also I have done nothing that they should put me into the prison. 16 When the chief baker saw that the interpretation was good, he said to Joseph, I also saw in my dream, and, behold. I had three baskets containing white bread on my head; 17 And in the uppermost basket there was of every kind of food for Pharaoh, prepared by a baker; and the birds of prey were eating it out of the basket on my head. 18 And Joseph answered and said to him, This is the interpretation of your dream: The three baskets are three days; 19 After three days Pharaoh shall have you beheaded, and then shall crucify you on a tree, and the birds of prey shall eat your flesh from off you.

20 And it came to pass on the third day, which was Pharaohís birthday, that he made a banquet for all his servants; and he remembered the chief butler and the chief baker among his servants. 21 And he restored the chief butler to his position; and he gave the cup into Pharaohís hands: 22 But he crucified the chief baker, as Joseph had interpreted to them. 23 Yet the chief butler did not remember Joseph, but forgot him.

Chapter 41

41:1 And it came to pass, two years later, Pharaoh dreamed; and he was standing by the river. 2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven beautiful and fat cows; and they fed in a meadow. 3 And, behold, seven other cows came up after them out of the river, ill-favored and lean; and stood beside the other cows on the bank of the river. 4 And the ill-favored and lean cows ate up the seven beautiful and fat cows. So Pharaoh awoke. 5 And he slept and dreamed a second time; and, behold, seven ears of grain were growing on a single stalk, rank and good. 6 And, behold, seven thin ears blasted by the east wind, sprang up after them. 7 And the seven thin ears devoured the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream. 8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; so he sent and called for all the magicians and all the wise men of Egypt; and Pharaoh told them his dreams; but there was no man who could interpret them to Pharaoh.

9 Then the chief butler spoke in the presence of Pharaoh, and said, I will mention my offense today; 10 Pharaoh was angry with his servants, and put me in the prison in the commander of the guardís house, both me and the chief baker; 11 And we dreamed dreams in the same night, I and he; we dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream. 12 And there was with us a young man, a Hebrew, a servant of the commander of the guard; and we told him our dreams, and he interpreted to us our dreams; to each man according to his dream he did interpret. 13 And it came to pass, as he interpreted to us, so it was; I was restored to my position, and he was crucified. 14 Then Pharaoh sent and called Joseph, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon; and he shaved himself, and changed his clothes, and came in before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it; and I have heard concerning you, that when you hear a dream you can interpret it. 16 And Joseph answered and said to Pharaoh, Do you think, perhaps, that without God I am able to give Pharaoh an answer that everything will be well?

17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, In my dream I was standing on the bank of the river; 18 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven fat and beautiful cows; and they fed in a meadow; 19 And, behold, seven other cows came up after them, poor and ill-favored and lean. I had never seen such ill-favored cows in all the land of Egypt. 20 And the lean and ill-favored cows ate up the first seven fat cows; 21 And when they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them: for they were still ill-favored, as at the beginning. Then I awoke. 22 And again, I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears of grain growing on one stalk, full and good; 23 And, behold, seven other ears, thin and blasted by the east wind, sprang up after them; 24 And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears; and I told this to the magicians; but there was no one who could interpret these dreams to me. 25 And Joseph said to Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one; God has shown Pharaoh what he is about to do. 26 The seven good cows are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years; the dream is one. 27 And the seven lean and ill-favored cows that came up after them are seven years; and the seven thin ears blasted by the east wind shall be seven years of famine. 28 It is the thing which I told Pharaoh; what God is about to do he has shown to Pharaoh. 29 Behold. there are coming seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt; 30 And there shall arise after them seven years of famine; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land; 31 And the plenty shall not be remembered in the land because of the famine which shall follow; for it shall be very severe. 32 And as for that the dream was repeated to Pharaoh twice; it is because the thing is already prepared by God, and God will hasten to bring it to pass.

33 Now therefore let Pharaoh find a discreet and wise man, and appoint him an overseer over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him appoint officers over the land of Egypt to take the fifth part of the produce of the land of Egypt during the seven plenteous years. 35 And let them gather all the wheat of these good years that are coming, and store up the grain under the authority of Pharaoh, and let them keep the grain in the towns. 36 And let the grain be kept for the land against the seven years of famine which shall come in the land of Egypt; so that the land may not perish through the famine. 37 And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said to his servants, Can we find such a man as this, in whom the Spirit of God is? 39 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph. Forasmuch as God has shown you all this, there is none so wise and discreet as you are: 40 You shall be over my household, and according to your word shall all my people be ruled; only on the throne will I be greater than you. 41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, See, I have made you governor over all the land of Egypt. 42 Then Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it on Josephís hand, and arrayed him in robes of fine linen, and put a gold chain about his neck: 43 And he made him to ride in another chariot which belonged to him; and they cried before him, Father and governor! Thus he made him governor over all the land of Egypt. 44 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I Pharaoh have commanded that without your orders no man shall undertake anything in all the land of Egypt. 45 Then Pharaoh called Josephís name Zaphnath-paaneah (because the hidden things were revealed to him); and he gave him to wife Asiath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. And Joseph went throughout all the land of Egypt.

46 And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh king of Egypt. And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. 47 And in the seven plenteous years the land brought forth abundantly. 48 And he gathered up all the grain of the seven plenteous years which were in the land of Egypt, and stored up the grain in towns; the grain of the fields which was round about every town he stored in the same. 49 And Joseph stored up grain as the sand of the sea, very much, until he was tired of numbering it; for it was without number. 50 And to Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, whom Asiath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On bore to him. 51 And Joseph called the name of his first-born Manasseh; For God, said he, has made me forget all my troubles, and all my fatherís house. 52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim; For God has made me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction. 53 And the seven years of plenty that were in the land of Egypt came to an end. 54 And the seven years of famine began to come, according as Joseph had said; and there was famine in all lands; and in all the land of Egypt there was no bread. 55 And when all the land of Egypt was famished, the people complained against Pharaoh because of the lack of bread; and Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, Go to Joseph; and what he says to you, do. 56 And the famine was over all the face of the land, and Joseph opened all the storehouses, and sold to the Egyptians; 57 And the famine was severe in the land of Egypt. And the people from all lands came to Egypt to Joseph to buy grain; because the famine was severe in all lands.

Study Notes for Chapter 41
41:45 Asiath (Asenath). The Gentile bride espoused by Joseph the rejected one (John 19:15); type of the assembly of God's people, called out from the Gentiles to be the bride of Messiah during the time of his rejection by his brethren, Israel.

Chapter 42

42:1 Now when Jacob saw that there was grain in Egypt, Jacob said to his sons, Fear not. 2 Behold, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt; go down there, and buy for us from there; that we may live, and not die. 3 And so Josephís ten brothers went down to buy grain in Egypt. 4 But Benjamin, Josephís brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers; for he said, Lest some misfortune might befall him. 5 And the sons of Israel came to buy grain with those that came; for the famine was severe in the land of Canaan. 6 Now Joseph was the governor over the land, and he it was who sold the grain to all the people of the land; and Josephís brothers came, and bowed down themselves before him with their faces to the ground.

7 And Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he deceived them and spoke harshly to them; and he said to them, Where have you come from? And they said, We came from the land of Canaan to buy grain. 8 And Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him. 9 Then Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed about them, and said to them, You are spies; you have come to get a report about the land. 10 And they said to him, No, our lord, but to buy grain your servants have come. 11 We are all one manís sons; we are pious men; your servants are not spies. 12 And Joseph said to them, It is not so, but to get a report about the land you have come. 13 And they said to him, Your servants are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is dead. 14 And Joseph said to them, It is just as I said to you, you are spies: 15 By this you shall be proved; by the life of Pharaoh you shall not go forth from this place, except your younger brother comes here. 16 Send one of you, and let him bring your brother, and you shall be bound in prison, so that your words may be proved, to see if your statements are true; and if they are not true, by the life of Pharaoh, surely you are spies. 17 And he put them all together in prison for three days. 18 And on the third day Joseph said to them, Do this, and live; for I worship God; 19 If you are pious men, let one of your brothers be bound in your prison; and the rest of you, go and carry grain for the famished who are in your household; 20 But bring your youngest brother to me; so shall your words be verified, and you shall not die. And they did so.

21 And they said one to another, Truly we are guilty concerning our brother, for we saw the anguish of his soul when he pleaded with us, and we would not listen to him; therefore is this distress come upon us. 22 And Reuben answered and said to them, Did I not tell you, Do not sin against the boy; but you did not listen? So now his blood is required. 23 And they did not know that Joseph understood them; for he spoke to them by an interpreter. 24 And he turned aside from them and wept; and he returned to them again, and conversed with them, and took Simeon from them, and bound him before their eyes. 25 Then Joseph commanded the servants to fill their sacks with wheat, and to restore every manís money into his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey; and they did so for them. 26 And they loaded their asses with their wheat, and departed thence. 27 And as one of them opened his sack to give his ass provender in the inn, he saw his money in the mouth of his sack. 28 And he said to his brothers, My money has been returned; and, lo, it is in the mouth of my sack; and their hearts failed them, and they were amazed, staring at one another, saying, What is this that God has done to us?

29 And they came to Jacob their father to the land of Canaan, and told him all that had befallen them, saying, 30 The man who is the lord of the land spoke roughly to us, and took us for spies of the land. 31 But we said to him, We are pious men; we are not spies; 32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; and one is dead, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan. 33 And the man, the lord of the land, said to us, By this shall I know that you are pious men; leave one of your brothers here with me, and take wheat for the famished who are in your households, and go your way; 34 And bring your youngest brother to me; then shall I know that you are not spies, but that you are pious men; so I will deliver your brother to you, and you shall trade in the land. 35 And it came to pass as they emptied their sacks, behold, every manís bag of money was in his sack; and when both they and their father saw the bags of money, they were afraid. 36 And Jacob their father said to them, You have bereaved me of my children: Joseph is dead, and Simeon is missing, and now you will take Benjamin away; all these things are against me. 37 Then Reuben said to his father, Put to death my two sons if I do not bring him back to you; intrust him to me, and I will bring him back to you. 38 And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he alone is left to his mother: if misfortune should befall him by the way in which you go, then you shall bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.

Chapter 43

43:1 The famine was very severe in the land. 2 And when they had finished eating the wheat which they had brought from Egypt, their father Jacob said to them, Go down to Egypt, and buy us a little grain. 3 And Judah said to him, The man did solemnly charge us, saying, You shall not see my face except your brother is with you. 4 If you will send our brother with us, we will go down and buy grain for ourselves; 5 But if you will not send him, we will not go down; for the man said to us, You shall not see my face except your brother is with you. 6 Then their father Israel said to them, Why did you cause me this displeasure, as to tell the man whether you had another brother? 7 And they said, The man asked us straitly about ourselves and our kindred, saying, Is your father still alive? Have you another brother? And we told him simply because of these words; could we have known in advance that he would say to us that we should bring our brother down? 8 And Judah said to Israel his father, Send the lad with us, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and you, and also our little ones. 9 And I will be surety for him; of my hands shall you require him; if I do not bring him back to you, and set him before you, then I shall be guilty before my father forever; 10 For if we had not delayed, perhaps we would have now returned a second time.

11 And their father Israel said to them, If it must be so now, then do this: take some of the best fruits of the land in your sacks, and carry down the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, gum, and myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds; 12 And take double money with you; and the money that was brought back in the mouth of your sacks, take it again with you; perhaps it was an oversight; 13 Take also your brother, and arise, and go again to the man; 14 And may God Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away your other brother, and Benjamin with you. And as for me, if I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.

15 So the men took the present, and they took double money with them, and Benjamin; and rose up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph. 16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house, Bring these men into the house, and kill a sheep, and make ready; for these men shall dine with me at noon. 17 And the servant did as Joseph had told him; and brought the men into Josephís house. 18 And they were afraid, when they brought them into Josephís house; and they said, It is because of the money that was returned in our sacks at the first time that we are brought in; so that he may seek occasion against us, and conspire against us, that they may make us slaves, and take away our asses. 19 So they came near to the steward of Josephís house and spoke with him at the door of the house, 20 And said, We beseech you, O our lord, we truly came down at the first time to buy grain; 21 And it came to pass when we came to the inn that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every manís money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in full weight; and we have brought it back again with us. 22 And we have brought other money down with us to buy grain: we did not know who put our money in our sacks. 23 He said to them, Peace be to you, fear not; your God, and the God of your father, has put a treasure in your sacks; I had your money. And he brought Simeon out to them. 24 Then the servant brought the men into Josephís house and gave them water, and they washed their feet; and he put fodder before their asses. 25 And the men made ready the present before Joseph came at noon; for they heard that they should eat bread there.

26 And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which they had in their hands into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the ground. 27 And he asked them of their welfare, and said to them, Is your father well, the old man of whom you spoke to me? Is he still alive? 28 And they answered, Your servant our father is well. he is still alive. And they bowed down their heads and made obeisance. 29 And he raised up his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his motherís son, and said to them, Is this your youngest brother, of whom you spoke to me? And he said. May God be gracious to you, my son. 30 And Joseph made haste; for his heart did yearn for his brother; and he sought where to weep; and he entered into his chamber and wept there. 31 Then he washed his face and went out and controlled his emotions and said, Let us eat. 32 And they served Joseph by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians, who did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians could not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination to the Egyptians. 33 And they sat before him, the first-born according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth; and the men looked at one another and marveled. 34 And the servants took portions to them from before Joseph; but Benjaminís portion was five times as much as any of theirs. And they drank and were merry with him.

Study Notes for Chapter 43
43:34 Benjaminís portion. It is important to observe that Benjamin now becomes prominent. Joseph is peculiarly the type of Messiah in his first advent, rejection, death, resurrection, and present exaltation among the Gentiles, but unrecognized by the majority of Israel. As the greater Benjamin, "Son of sorrow," but also "Son of my right hand," He is to be revealed in power in the Kingdom (Genesis 1:26-28). It is then, and not till then, that Israel is to be restored and converted. Typically Genesis 45:1,2 anticipates the revelation prophetically described (Ezekiel 20:33-36; Hosea 2:14-23) at which time the Benjamin type of Messiah will be fulfilled.

Chapter 44

44:1 And he commanded the steward of his house, saying, Fill the menís sacks with wheat, as much as they can carry, and put every manís money in his sackís mouth. 2 And take my cup, the silver cup, and put it in the sackís mouth of the youngest, with his money for the wheat. And the servant did according to the word that Joseph had spoken. 3 As soon as the morning was light, the men started on their way, together with their asses. 4 And when they were gone out of the city, but not yet far off, Joseph said to the steward, Arise, pursue the men; and when you overtake them, say to them, Why have you returned evil for good? 5 This is the cup from which my lord drinks, and by which indeed he divines. You have done evil in so doing. 6 And he overtook them, and he spoke to them these same words. 7 They said to him, Let not our lord speak such words. Far be it from your servants that they should do such a thing; 8 Behold, the money which we found in our sacksí mouths we brought back to you from the land of Canaan; how then should we steal from your masterís house gold or silver? 9 With whomsoever of your servants it be found, both let him die, and we also will be to our lord servants. 10 And he said to them, Now also let it be according to your words; he with whom it is found shall be my servant; and the rest of you shall be blameless. 11 Then they speedily took down every man his sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. 12 And they searched, beginning with the eldest and ending with the youngest; and the cup was found in Benjaminís sack. 13 And they tore their clothes, and loaded every man his ass, and returned to the town. 14 And Judah and his brothers came to Josephís house; for he was still there; and they fell before him on the ground. 15 And Joseph said to them, What deed is this that you have done? Did you not know that such a man as I can certainly divine? 16 And Judah said, What shall we say to my lord? What shall we speak? Or how shall we clear ourselves? God has found out the iniquity of your servants; behold, we are my lordís servants, both we, and he also with whom the cup is found. 17 And he said to them, Far be it from me that I should do such a thing; only the man with whom the cup has been found, he shall be my servant; and as for you, go up in peace to your father.

18 Then Judah came near to him and said, I beg you, O my lord, let your servant speak a few words in my lordís presence, and let not your anger burn against your servant; for you are even like Pharaoh. 19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Have you a father, or a brother? 20 And we said to my lord, We have a father, an old man, and he has a young son, the child of his old age; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loves him. 21 Then you said to your servants, Bring him down to me, that I may set my eyes upon him. 22 And we said to my lord, The lad cannot leave his father; for if he should leave his father, his father would die. 23 And you said to your servants, Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you shall see my face no more. 24 And when we came up to your servant our father, we told him the words of my lord. 25 And your servant our father said to us, Go back again and buy us a little grain. 26 And we said to our father, We cannot go down; if our youngest brother goes down with us, then we will go down; for we cannot see the manís face unless our youngest brother is with us. 27 Then your servant our father said to us, You know that my wife bore me two sons; 28 And the one of them left me, and I said, Surely he has been killed; and I have never seen him since; 29 And now you want to take this one also from me, and if misfortune should befall him, you will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol. 30 Now therefore when we come to your servant our father, and the lad is not with us; seeing that his life is dear to him like his own life; 31 It shall come to pass when he sees that the lad is not with us, he will die; and your servants shall bring down the gray hairs of your servant our father with sorrow to Sheol. 32 For your servant became surety for the lad to our father, saying, If l do not bring him back to you, then I shall be guilty before my father forever. 33 Now therefore, let your servant stay here instead of the lad as a servant to my lord; and let the lad go up with his brothers. 34 For how can I go up to my father, if the lad is not with me? Lest I see the misfortune which will come on my father.

Chapter 45

45:1 Then Joseph could no longer control his emotions before all those who stood in his presence; and he said, Cause everyone to go out from me. And there remained no one with him when Joseph made himself known to his brothers. 2 And he wept aloud; and the Egyptians and the household of Pharaoh heard it. 3 And Joseph said to his brothers, I am Joseph your brother; is my father still alive? But his brothers could not answer him because they were afraid at his presence. 4 And Joseph said to his brothers, Come near to me; and they came near. And he said to them, I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold to the Egyptians. 5 Now do not be grieved, nor displeased with yourselves, that you sold me here; for it was to provide for you that God sent me before you. 6 For behold the famine has been in the land for two years; and yet there are five years, in which there will be no one that sows or that reaps. 7 And God sent me before you to preserve you a remnant on the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. 8 So now it was not you who sent me here, but God; and he has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord over all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. 9 Hasten, and go up to my father, and say to him, Thus says your son Joseph, God has made me lord over all Egypt; come down to me, do not delay; 10 And you shall dwell in the land of Goshen, and you shall be near me, you and your children and your childrenís children and your flocks and your herds and all that you have; 11 And there I will provide for you; for the famine will yet last five years more; lest you, your household, and all that you have perish. 12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaks to you. 13 And you must tell my father of all my glory in Egypt and of all that you have seen; and you shall hasten and bring down my father here. 14 Then he fell upon his brother Benjaminís neck and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. 15 Moreover he kissed all his brothers and wept upon them; and after that, his brothers talked with him.

16 And the news of their meeting was reported in Pharaohís house, saying, Josephís brothers are come; and the news pleased Pharaoh well, and his servants. 17 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Say to your brothers, Do this: load your beasts with wheat, and go, and carry it to the land of Canaan; 18 And take your father and your households, and come to me; and I will give you the best of the land of Egypt, and you shall eat of the fat of the land. 19 Behold, you are the governor; say to your brothers, Do this: take wagons from the land of Egypt for your wives and for your little ones, and bring your father, and come. 20 And do not regard your stuff which you leave behind; for the choicest of all the land of Egypt is yours. 21 And the sons of Israel did so; and Joseph gave them wagons, according to the command of Pharaoh, and gave them provisions for the journey. 22 To all of them he gave each man two pairs of garments; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five pairs of garments. 23 And to his father he sent after this manner: ten asses laden with the good things of Egypt, and ten she-asses laden with wheat, wine, and provisions for his fatherís journey. 24 So he sent his brothers away, and they departed; and he said to them, Quarrel not on the journey.

25 And they went up out of Egypt, and came to the land of Canaan to their father Jacob. 26 And they told him, saying, Joseph is still alive, and he is governor over all the land of Egypt. But Jacob disregarded their story, for he did not believe them. 27 And they told him all the words which Joseph had said to them; and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him, their father Jacob was content. 28 And he said, This is great news for me, for my son Joseph is still alive; I will go and see him before I die.

Chapter 46

46:1 And Israel journeyed with all that he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered sacrifices to the God of his father Isaac. 2 And God spoke to Israel in a vision of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I. 3 Then he said to him. I am El, the God of your father; fear not to go down to Egypt; for I will there make of you a great people; 4 I will go down with you into Egypt; and I will also surely bring you up again; and Joseph shall close your eyes when you die.

5 And Jacob rose up from Beersheba; and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, their little ones, and their wives in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 6 And they took their cattle and their goods which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt, Jacob and all his offspring with him; 7 His sons and his grandsons, his daughters and his sonsí daughters, and all his offspring he brought with him into Egypt. 8 And these are the names of the children of Israel, who came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacobís first-born. 9 And the sons of Reuben: Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. 10 The sons of Simeon: Jemuel, Jamin, Ohar, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman. 11 The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. 12 The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Pharez, and Zarah; but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. 13 The sons of Issachar: Tola, Phuvah, Job, and Shimron. 14 The sons of Zebulun: Seder, Elon, and Nahlael. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Padan-aram, together with his daughter Dinah; the number of persons, his sons and his daughters being thirty-three in all. 16 The sons of Gad: Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Adi, Arod, and Adri. 17 And the sons of Asher: Jimnah, Ishuah, Isui, and Beriah, and Serah their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Heber, and Malchiel. 18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban gave to Leah his daughter, and these she bore to Jacob, sixteen persons. 19 The sons of Rachel Jacobís wife: Joseph, and Benjamin. 20 And to Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asiath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On bore to him. 21 The sons of Benjamin: Belah, Akbar, Ashkel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Arosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard. 22 These are the sons of Rachel, whom she bore to Jacob, fourteen persons in all. 23 The son of Dan: Hushim. 24 And the sons of Naphtali: Nahzael, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem. 25 These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel, his daughter, and she bore these to Jacob, seven persons in all. 26 All the persons that came with Jacob into Egypt, who came out of his loins, besides Jacobís sonsí wives, were sixty-six persons in all; 27 And the sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt were two persons; thus all the persons of the house of Jacob who came into Egypt were seventy.

28 And he sent Judah before him to Joseph to present himself before him in Goshen; and they came into the land of Goshen. 29 And Joseph made ready his chariots, and went up to meet Israel his father in Goshen, and he presented himself to him, and fell on his neck, and wept on his neck for a while. 30 And Israel said to Joseph, Now let me die, since I have seen your face, my son, because you are still alive. 31 And Joseph said to his brothers and to his fatherís household, I will go up and inform Pharaoh, and say to him, My brothers and my fatherís household, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me; 32 And the men are shepherds, for they are cattle raisers; and they have brought their flocks and their herds and all that they have. 33 And it shall come to pass, when Pharaoh shall call you and shall say to you. What is your occupation? 34 You shall say to him, Your servants are cattle raisers from their youth even until now, both we and also our fathers; that you may dwell in the land of Goshen; for the Egyptians despise all those who feed sheep.

Study Notes for Chapter 46
46:3 It is important to distinguish between the directive and the permissive will of God. In the first sense the place for the covenant family was Canaan is a touching instance of the permissive will of God (Genesis 26:1-5; 46:3). Jacob's family, broken, and in part already in Egypt, the tenderness of Mar-Yah would not forbid the aged patriarch to follow. God will take up His people and, so far as possible, bless them, even when they are out of His best. In Israel's choice of a king (1†Samuel 8:7-9) in the turning back from Kadesh (Deuteronomy 1:19-22) in the sending of the spies; in the case of Balaam — illustrations of this principle are seen. It is needless to say that God's permissive will never extends to things morally wrong. The highest blessing is ever found in obedience to His directive will.

Chapter 47

47:1 Then Joseph came and informed Pharaoh, and said to him, My father and my brothers and their flocks and their herds and all that they have, are come from the land of Canaan; and, behold, they are now settled in the land of Goshen. 2 And he took from among his brothers five men and presented them to Pharaoh. 3 And Pharaoh said to Josephís brothers, What is your occupation? And they said to Pharaoh, Your servants are shepherds, both we and also our fathers, from our youth. 4 They said moreover to Pharaoh, We have come to sojourn in the land; for there is no pasture for your servantsí flocks; for the famine is severe in the land of Canaan; now, therefore, let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen. 5 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Your father and your brothers have come to you; 6 The land of Egypt is before you settle your father and your brothers in the best of the land; let them dwell in the land of Goshen; and if you know of any able men among them make them overseers over all my cattle. 7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father and presented him to Pharaoh and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 8 And Pharaoh said to Jacob, How old are you? 9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh. The days of the years of my pilgrimage are a hundred and thirty years; few and difficult have been the years o my life. and I have not attained to the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage. 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from before Pharaoh. 11 Then Joseph settled his father and his brothers, and gave them a possession in the land of Egypt in the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. 12 And Joseph plied his father and his brothers and all his fatherís household with wheat according to their families.

13 And there was no grain in all the land; for the famine was very severe, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan were desolate by reason of the famine. 14 And Joseph gathered up all the money that was to be found in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan for the grain which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaohís house. 15 And when the money was spent from the land of Egypt and from the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came to Joseph and said to him, Give us wheat that we may live, and not die in your presence; for the money is spent. 16 And Joseph said to them, Give me your cattle, and I will give you grain for your cattle, if your money is spent. 17 So they brought their cattle to Joseph; and Joseph gave them grain in exchange for horses and for flocks, and for herds and for asses; and he plied them with food in exchange for all their herds that year. 18 When that year was ended, they came to him the second year, and said to him, We will not hide it from our lord, for the money is spent; and our lord also has all the herds and cattle; there is nothing left in the sight of our lord but our persons and our lands; 19 Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our lands? Buy us and our lands for bread, and we and our lands will be servants to Pharaoh; and give us seed, that we may live, and not die and that the land be not desolate. 20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine prevailed over them; so the land became Pharaohís. 21 And as for the people, he removed them from town to town from one end of the borders of Egypt to the other end thereof. 22 Only the land of the priests he did not buy; for the priests had a grant from Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them; therefore they did not sell their lands. 23 Then Joseph said to the people, Behold, I have bought you this day and your lands for Pharaoh; 1o, here is seed for you, and you shall sow the land. 24 And it shall come to pass when the crops are gathered in, you shall give the fifth part to Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field and for your food and for food for your household and for food for your little ones. 25 And they said, You have saved our lives; let us find mercy in the sight of our lord, and we will be Pharaohís servants. 26 And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt to this day that Pharaoh should have the fifth part, except the land of the priests only, for it did not belong to Pharaoh.

27 And Israel dwelt in the land of Egypt in the region of Goshen; and they became powerful in it, and grew, and multiplied exceedingly. 28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years; so the whole age of Jacob was a hundred and forty-seven years. 29 And when the time drew near that Israel must die, he called his son Joseph, and said to him, If now I have found grace in your sight, put your hand under my girdle, and I will make you to swear by Mar-Yah that you will deal graciously and truly with me; do not bury me in Egypt; 30 But when I sleep with my fathers, you shall carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burial place. And Joseph said, I will do as you have said. 31 And he said, Swear to me. And he swore to him. And Israel bowed himself upon the head of his staff.

Chapter 48

48:1 And it came to pass after these things that Joseph was told, Behold, your father is sick; and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. 2 And they informed Jacob, and said to him, Behold, your son Joseph has come to you; and Israel strengthened himself, and sat up on the bed. 3 And Jacob said to Joseph, God Almighty appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan and blessed me, 4 And he said to me, Behold, I will bless you, and multiply you, and I will make of you a multitude of peoples; and I will give this land to your descendants after you for an everlasting possession. 5 And now your two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you into the land of Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. 6 But the children that you begot after them shall be yours, and shall be called after the name of their brothers when they come into their inheritance. 7 And as for me, when I was coming from Padan-aram, Rachel died at my side in the land of Canaan on the way, within the distance of three or four miles from the entrance to Ephrath; and I buried her there on the road to Ephrath; the same is Bethlehem.

8 And when Israel saw Josephís sons, he said to him, Who are these? 9 And Joseph said to his father, They are my sons whom God has given me in this place. And he said, Bring them near me, and I will bless them. 10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim because of age, so that he could not see well. And Joseph brought them near to him; and he kissed them and embraced them. 11 And Israel said to Joseph, I had not thought to see your face; and, 1o, God has shown me your children also. 12 And Joseph removed them from before his knees, and they bowed themselves before him with their faces to the ground. 13 Then Joseph took both of his sons, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israelís left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israelís right hand, and brought them near to him. 14 And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraimís head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manassehís head; he changed the position of his hands wittingly, even though Manasseh was the first-born. 15 And Jacob blessed Joseph his son, saying, The God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked righteously, the God who has plied my needs from my youth to this day, 16 The angel who has delivered me from all evil, bless the lads; and let them bear my name and the names of my fathers, Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow and multiply in the midst of the earth. 17 And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; and he held up his fatherís hand, to remove it from Ephraimís head to Manassehís head. 18 And Joseph said to his father, Not so, my father; for this is the first-born; put your right hand upon his head. 19 But his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it; he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great: but his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of peoples. 20 And he blessed them that day, saying, By you shall Israel bless, and they shall say, May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh; and thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh. 21 Then Israel said to Joseph, Behold, I am dying, but God shall be with you, and bring you again to the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover I have given to you one portion of the land more than our brothers, which I took from the and of the Amorites with my sword and with my bow.

Chapter 49

49:1 Then Jacob called his sons and said to them, Gather yourselves together that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days. 2 Gather yourselves together and listen, O sons of Jacob; and hearken o Israel your father. 3 Reuben, you are my first-born, my might, and the beginning of my strength, and the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power: 4 You went astray like water, you shall not excel; because you went up to your fatherís bed; truly, you have defiled my bed by going up into it.

5 Simeon and Levi are brothers; instruments of anger are in their nature. 6 I never agreed to their counsels; nor did I lower myself to sit in their assembly; for in their anger they slew men and in their rage they destroyed a town wall. 7 Cursed be their anger, for it is raging: and their wrath, for it is fierce; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

8 Judah, your brothers shall praise you; your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; your fatherís sons shall bow down before you. 9 Judah is a lionís whelp; from the prey, my son, you are gone up; he stooped down, he crouched as a lion, and as a young lion; who shall rouse him up? 10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until the coming of the One to whom the sceptre belongs, to whom the Gentiles shall look forward. 11 He shall tie up his foal to the vine, and his assís colt to a branch; he shall bleach his garments with wine, and his robe with the juices of the grape; 12 His eyes shall be radiant with wine, and his teeth white with milk?

13 Zebulun shall dwell at the shore of the seas; and he shall be a haven for ships; and his border shall extend as far as Zidon. 14 Issachar is a mighty man walking along the roads; 15 And he saw that his dwelling place was good, and his land fertile; and he bowed his shoulder to servitude, and became a servant to tribute. 16 Dan shall judge his people as if the tribes of Israel were one. 17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the paths, that bites the horseís heel and causes its rider to fall backward. 18 I have waited for thy salvation, O Mar-Yah. 19 Gad shall go out to raid, and shall pursue at the heels of his enemies. 20 As for Asher, his land is good, and he shall ply kings with food. 21 Naphtali is a swift messenger; he gives goodly words.

22 Joseph is a disciplined son, an educated son; a fruitful bough by a spring, whose branches run over the wall. 23 A company of men quarreled with him, and being great in numbers, envied him; 24 But in strength he bent his bow, and his arms were made strong by the hands of the mighty One of Jacob; (by the name of the Shepherd, the Strength of Israel:) 25 May the God of your father help you and the Almighty bless you with the blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep beneath, blessings of the breasts, and of the womb; 26 The blessings of your father have prevailed above the blessings of my forbears to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills; they shall be on the head of Joseph, on the crown of the head of him who is the prince of his brothers. 27 Benjamin is a plundering wolf; in the morning he shall devour the prey, and in the evening he shall divide the spoil.

28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel; and this is what their father Jacob said to them; he addressed them, then he blessed them, according to his blessing, he blessed every one of them. 29 Then their father blessed them, and charged them, and said to them, I am to be gathered to my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 In the cave which is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, in the double cave which is in the field, before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, the field which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hittite as a possession for a burial ground. 31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah. 32 The field and the cave which is in it were purchased from the children of Heth. 33 And when Jacob had finished charging his sons, he stretched his feet on his bed, and grew weak, and died, and was gathered to his people.

Study Notes for Chapter 49
49:28 blessed them. Jacob's life, ending in serenity and blessing, testifies to the power of God to transform character. His spiritual progress has six notable phases: (1) the first exercise of faith, as shown in the purchase of the birthright (Genesis 25:28-34; 27:10-22); (2) the vision at Beth-el (Genesis 28:10-19); (3) walking in the flesh (Genesis 29:1-31:55); (4) the transforming experience (Genesis 32:24-31); (5) the return to Beth-el: idols put away (Genesis 35:1-7); (6) the walk of faith (Genesis 37:1-49:33).

Chapter 50

50:1 And Joseph fell upon his fatherís face, and wept over him, and kissed him. 2 Then Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father; and the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of those who are embalmed; and the Egyptians mourned for him seventy days. 4 And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spoke to the household of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found mercy in your eyes, speak in the presence of Pharaoh, saying, 5 My father made me swear, saying, Behold I am dying; in my grave which I bought for myself in the land of Canaan, there you shall bury me. Now therefore let me go up and bury my father, and I will come back again, 6 And Pharaoh said, Go up and bury your father, according as he made you swear.

7 So Joseph went up to bury his father; and with him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 And all the household of Joseph, his brothers, and his fatherís household; only their little ones, their flocks, and their herds, they left in the land of Goshen. 9 And there went up with him both chariots and horsemen; and it was a very great company. 10 And they came to the threshing floor of Atar, which is beyond the Jordan, and there they mourned with a great and very sore lamentation; and Joseph made a mourning for his father seven days. 11 And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the threshing floor of Atar, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians; therefore the name of it was called Abel-mizrin, which is beyond Jordan. 12 And his sons did to Jacob just as he had commanded them; 13 For they carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the double cave, which is in the field, which Abraham purchased with the field for a possession for a burial ground from Ephron, the Hittite, before Mamre. 14 And Joseph returned to Egypt, he and his brothers, and all who went up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father.

15 And when Josephís brothers saw that their father was dead, they were afraid, saying. It may be Joseph will harm us, and perhaps he will requite us all the evil which we did to him. 16 So they came to Joseph and said to him, Your father did command before he died, saying, 17 Thus shall you say to Joseph, Forgive, we pray you now, the trespass of your brothers and their sins; for they did evil to you; and now forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of your father. And Joseph wept when they spoke to him. 18 And his brothers also went and fell down before him; and they said, Behold, we are your servants. 19 But Joseph said to them, Fear not; for I am a servant of God. 20 But as for you, you thought evil against me; but God meant it for good, to do as he has done this day, to save many lives. 21 Now therefore do not be afraid; I will provide for you and your little ones. And he comforted them, and spoke kindly to them.

22 And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and all his fatherís house; and Joseph lived a hundred and ten years. 23 And Joseph saw Ephraimís children of the third generation; the children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were brought up upon Josephís knees. 24 And Joseph said to his brothers, I am dying; and God will surely remember you, and bring you up out of this land to the land which he swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. 25 And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, saying, God will surely remember you, and you shall carry up my bones from here with you. 26 So Joseph died, being a hundred and ten years old; and they embalmed him and put him in a coffin in Egypt.